In December 1961, Solzhenitsyn introduced the chief editor of the magazine "New World" Tvardovsky second story (for review).It was called "Do not worth the village without a righteous man," but almost immediately was renamed "Matryona".The problem was not only in the content of the product, but also in the names containing "religious term."Publish the story was only a year later - in the January 1963 issue of the popular in the Soviet literary journal.
That time is called thaw.To this end, certain grounds were many millions of recent prisoners of Stalin's camps and exiles left the place with a heavy frost or desert climate and recovered part of the European Union - not in large cities (they were not allowed there), and in villages and towns middle band.Here, among the gently rustling foliage forest near the quiet flowing rivers dolgostradaltsam everything seemed nice and cozy.Nevertheless, even in the life of these parts was not easy.To get a job was not easy, but easier than recently, whe
So was in 1956, the country has changed a lot, but the farm life remained poor.Many aspects of the post-Stalin era peasant life casually lit Solzhenitsyn in the story "Matryona".The problem of his landlady modern reader may seem trivial, but in the early Khrushchev years she stood in front of many villagers vast country.Kolhoznaya pension - miserable, vosmidesyatirublevaya (8 rubles. The new, post-reform) - and that did not rely woman ottrudivsheysya honest life.She went to the chain of command, gathering any statement of earnings of the deceased husband, faced with constant stupid callousness and ill bureaucratic indifference, and, in the end, made his own.She put the pension, and taking into account additional payments kvartirovanie teachers (Ignatyitch on behalf of which the story is told), her earnings acquired by rural standards, the huge size - as much as one hundred and eighty rubles (after 1961 18 rubles.) - "To die is not necessary".
And Machine peat ...
Yes, this type of fuel is often used for heating in areas with marshy climate.It seems that it should be enough to everyone, but in the tough reality of the Soviet fifties felt a shortage of everything that was necessary for people.This provision largely persisted throughout the Soviet era.The High Field bread is baked, the product traded, all this had to drag in bags from the regional center.But, in addition to supplying the population with edible, Solzhenitsyn tells about another important aspect of peasant life in the story "Matryona".The problem of heating the leadership of the collective farm has been fully passed on to the residents of the village, and they decided on their own and how it might: stealing peat.Ignatich naively thought that truck fuel - a lot of that will suffice for the whole winter, but in fact required three times.Peat drags on all the women of the village - at the risk of being caught, hiding stolen from the chairman that the warmth in your home, of course, take care.
House Matrona had a spacious, once stout, but the time and the lack of male hands who came into disrepair.The history of this estate goes back to before the revolution.The mistress was married, I lived here for a long time, gave birth to six children, none of whom survived.Matrona niece raised as his own daughter, taking her from a large family of her husband's brother.There was the background: as a bride, she was about to leave for Thaddeus, his current "divirya" but did not work out.He disappeared without a trace in the German, but she did not wait, married his brother.Thaddeus later announced was very angry, but has remained Matrona with Efim.
rights to property caused conflict between relatives have to decide how they will share Matryona.Problems and arguments used by future heirs, have caused many contradictions and mysteriously caused the death of a woman.
Life and loneliness
village - a special world, where the rights of their own unwritten laws.Marya many feel stupid.It is not a household as adopted in almost all.Rented material problems in the product, "Matryona" illustrated the lack of cow and pig, without which the villagers usually do not be.Criticized her for it, although it would seem, some who care about how living a lonely older woman?She herself was understandably explains the reason for such negligence.She gives milk a goat with which to feed the hassle of much less (it is not smiles prospect to feed shepherd, and poor health).From her living creatures live mice, cockroaches so lame cat, whom a lot - that's the whole "Matryona".The problem of senile loneliness was, is and will be.
now should remember the name of the original version of the story.What does a righteous man, and why is the Orthodox concept applies to most ordinary peasant living in poverty, loneliness and a little different from the many millions of women like her all over the Soviet Union?How does it differ from others?It is not for nothing that Solzhenitsyn wanted to call his work right?What are the problems in the story "Matryona" he raises?
fact that Matrona has an important human quality.She never refuses to help others, without making a distinction between "good" and "bad."Came predsedateleva wife, the lady is important, and with aplomb required (not asked) to go to work, "help the farm."She did not even greet only notifies that the entrenching tool you need to take.Sick elderly woman and wants to like to give up, but then he asked for the hour to come.As for the neighbors, and then do not need to ask Marya - she is always ready to harness, not even considering this service with his hand, and discarding any material reward, although it it would in any case not hurt.Ignatich never heard from her condemnation of someone else action, his mistress never gossips.
notorious "housing problem" is really our spoils, in general, good people.And the characters works also suffer from this problem.In the story of Solzhenitsyn's "Matryona" old Thaddeus he became the spokesman of the bustling greed and excessive thrift.He can not wait to get a piece of the legacy bequeathed to, and right now.With wood construction problems: an extension to the old woman did not need, he wants to take it apart and move yourself.In itself, this desire does not express anything wrong, but it is important to note here that Thaddeus knew that Matryona could not refuse.The issues raised in the story "Matryona", exist in society regardless of the level of prosperity.Miser and haste, in the end, lead to a tragic accident.Overloaded hitch sled with building materials cut off at the crossing, train drivers do not notice it, and faced with a tractor.People are dying, including Matrona, as always monitor: help.
funerals and memorials
subtle psychology, irony and even grim humor present in the farewell scene with the main character of the story "Matryona".Problems and arguments encrypted funeral lamentations and mourning different characters, deciphered by clarifying their true motive.The reader can not help becoming a shame that over the rough coffin Matrona, women in the life of good and guileless, so sweeping and sophisticated intriganskie information flows.There are, however, and the people who loved the deceased, they cry sincerely.Thaddeus meanwhile, is busy: it is urgently necessary to bring the property until it is gone, and he "solves the issue," to keep up the wake, which, as is often the case, completed almost merry feast.All of this in the first place reveals the moral problem.
In the story "Matryona", as in other works of Solzhenitsyn, merge annoyance writer's vain, selfish attitude to life and the belief in a just a good start.