world architecture developed by the laws of the dominant church.Residential civic buildings looked quite modest, while the temples struck his pomp.In the Middle Ages the church had considerable means that the higher clergy received from the state, in addition to the church treasury received donations of parishioners.With this money, and built churches throughout Russia.Examples of civil architecture of the time left much to be desired.However, since the 18th century, the situation changed radically.Churches and cathedrals were built already without excessive luxury, but the landlords' estates, the king's country houses and even buildings in the hunting grounds of the nobility greatly added to the refinement and beauty.Styles of houses, the architecture of buildings, streets and squares have been continuously improved.Architects considered the most respected people.
Early Gothic style
unique examples of ancient architecture - it cathedrals that were built from the mid-12th century in the northern r
parallel with the Gothic in the 12th - 14th centuries developed and Romanesque architecture of the Middle Ages.Italian architects to erect a building with walls incredible thickness, the house was more like a fortress.Examples of Romanesque architecture - a construction resembling military fortifications.The lower tier has been particularly strong, fundamental, second floor consisted of towers and turrets, round and rectangular in plan, large and small.All the towers were narrow, high windows, shaped like slits.Romanesque style of architecture of the Middle Ages up to his time.Warring clans jousting need effective protection from attacks of the enemy, and the family castle fortresses could not be better suited for this purpose.
In ancient times, a lot of attention was paid to the construction of public buildings.It was a grandiose structure, designed to organizing mass spectacles.Ancient Roman Forum, designed for tens of thousands of spectators, the ancient Greek agora, is a huge open area filled with people on a daily basis, artisans and traders.The architecture of the ancient Egyptian was significantly different from the Roman, first of all, that the Egyptians never a crowd of thousands gathered in one place.Egyptian history is rooted in the 15th century BC, when the architecture was of a conditional nature.Buildings were built of limestone and red baked clay.About styles yet nothing was known, the ancient Egyptians were not concerned about styling their structures and how to build houses higher to avoid flooding from the flooding of the Nile.
ancient Greek architecture has been mostly focused on the construction of the temple buildings, some of which have reached our time.Gradually identified several architectural styles:
- Doric order - characterized by simple, powerful forms, even some of their heavy-handedness.Doric columns have on their surface flute, deep grooves, extending from the bottom of the base to the capitals.Horizontal lines on Doric - is the architrave, which connects the column at the level of the abacus, the top runs a frieze consisting of two layers - the triglyphs and metopes.All together form the entablature that crowns gezimsom, cornice with a significant overhang outside.
- Ionic order - compared to the ponderous Doric features easy proportions.The main sign of belonging to the Ionic order is the capital of the column-shaped double volute aimed curls down.Ionic order is considered an architectural style of the female, as he refined and supplemented ornaments.There was order in the VI century BC, in Ionia, on the northwest coast of the Aegean Sea.A century later spread throughout ancient Greece.The main building in the Ionic style - is the temple of the goddess Hera on the island of Samos, built in 570 years BC, and soon destroyed by an earthquake.And the most stylish building in the Ionic order is the Temple of Artemis - one of the "Seven Wonders of the World."
- Corinthian - the most recent, differed from other special splendor.Columns in the image and the entablature resemble symptoms of the Ionic order, but the abacus and the capital completely different.Corinthian style full of decorative, in its present capitals of floral designs on the perimeter are two rows of acanthus leaves.Capital also is decorated with a lot lily volyutok.
early 18th century was marked by the emergence of a new trend in world culture - classicism.Regular shape, clear projection and proportions - these were the main criteria of architectural classicism.A faithful follower of the ancient style of temple architecture, the Venetian master Palladio with the student Scamozzi substantiate his theory of ancient classicism.The doctrine has been called "palladianstva" and became widely used in the construction of private houses.Style "classicism" in architecture proved technologically advanced and user-friendly in terms of design and construction of buildings.
Sunset architecture "baroque"
As it turned out, the cost of the buildings erected in the new style, was significantly lower.Buildings differ brevity, "whipped cream" Late Baroque thing of the past, with its classicism-axial symmetrical compositions and noble restraint decoration are gaining admirers.European connoisseurs of architectural masterpieces were ready to abandon the baroque and rococo in favor of the Chamber, with hints of academic, rigorous and elegant classicism.
At the same time several houses were built under the direction of Andrea Palladio, the most famous of which was the palace of "Rotonda" near Vicenza.Style "classicism" in architecture quickly gained popularity.Paris literally flooded building.When Louis XV erected entire architectural ensembles such as the Place de la Concorde.But during the reign of Louis XVI "laconic classicism" it has become a major trend in urban architecture.After the execution of the French King and the overthrow of the monarchy in 1793 in Paris for a long time built up randomly and inconsistently.
Architectural Empire style
At the end of the 18th century Classicism began to decline, needed renovation of the entire culture in general and architecture as its component parts.
replaced by a new style of classicism in art and architecture, called Empire, which originated and was developed in France during the reign of Napoleon I. The emergence of a new direction was due in no small part to political reasons.The Government of Napoleon Bonaparte tried to impose its own so-called "imperial" style of architecture, when it became clear that classicism is nearing a close.How solemn and pompous Empire, and all other styles of 19th century architecture fits perfectly into the palace agglomerates, but the emphasis is still on the "royal" direction.
The Russian Empire architecture appeared during the reign of Alexander the First, which is loyal to the French culture and considered it worthy of imitation.No wonder the Emperor invited architect from France, Auguste Montferrand, for the erection of the famous St. Isaac's Cathedral.The style of architecture - the Empire - was united in its form, it was divided into Petersburg and Moscow and lasted until the mid-19th century.In addition to St. Isaac's Cathedral, built in 1858, in St. Petersburg, there is another masterpiece in the "royal" style is the Kazan Cathedral Andrei Voronikhin, and in Moscow "Triumphal Arch".Russian style in architecture Empire - a thirty-year period of construction of real masterpieces.
Architectural attractions of St. Petersburg
One of the most prominent cities in the world of architectural significance is the city of St. Petersburg, the Northern Capital of Russia.Because of the continuity of Russian and West European experience of urban development in XVIII - XIX centuries, in St. Petersburg was a unique conglomerate.The city is represented by fifteen different architectural styles, harmonious polyphony which creates a unique picture of the reunion of several historical periods into one.The boundaries are not clearly marked epochs, "blurred", but all the signs of the past are present.
Petersburg architecture includes eight areas that predominate:
- Baroque "Peter", the beginning of the 18th century;
- Baroque "Elizabeth", the middle of the 18th century;
- Gothic, the second half of the 18th century;
- classicism, the end of the 18th century;
- Russian Empire, early 19th century;
- Renaissance, mid-19th century;
- eclecticism, the second half of the 19th century;
- modern, early 20th century;
Petrine Baroque - a converted Italian and French baroque.Several baroque style was welcomed by Peter I and his entourage.However, the time that the heyday of the baroque, it was tumultuous, many wars devastated the treasury.Construction of new buildings underfinanced, and it could not affect their quality.The Baroque style was designated only on the facades, accentuated the main features of architectural direction: pediments, pilasters with volutes, spiers on the roof.The interiors were drawn on the basis of the suite, it significantly reduces the cost of construction.Petrine Baroque dominated in St. Petersburg from 1703 to 1740, after the death of the emperor in 1725 Activity under contract to the European architects decreased, but work continued for another 15 years.
who ascended the throne in 1741 daughter of Peter I, Elizabeth sought to centralize power, besides, she was no stranger to luxury, splendor, sumptuous feasts and balls.The architecture of urban sprawl during the reign of Elizabeth was the pomposity and pretentiousness traced thus itself originated the style of "Elizabethan baroque."The main architect of the time was Bartolomeo Rastrelli, who created a masterpiece of architecture of world importance - the Winter Palace, located in the Palace Square, which is also known as a museum "Hermitage".
list of architectural structures erected during the reign of Elizabeth the baroque:
- Anichkov Palace (1741 - 1753).
- Elizabeth Summer Palace (1741 - 1744), was not preserved.
- Big Peterhof Palace (1745 - 1762).
- Ekateringofsky Palace (1747 - 1750), was not preserved.
- Smolny Cathedral, built in St. Petersburg (1748 - 1754).
- Vorontsov Palace, St. Petersburg (1749 - 1757).
- Road Palace in the Middle Slingshot (1751 - 1754), was not preserved.
- Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo (1752 - 1758).
- Stroganov Palace, Nevsky Prospect (1753 - 1754).
- Nicholas-Epiphany Marine Cathedral (1753 - 1762).
- House Shuvalov on Italian street (1753 - 1755).
- Winter Palace (1754 - 1762).
- Yakovleva House (1762 - 1766), was not preserved.
Gothic St. Petersburg
city on the Neva is one of the most unique metropolises in the world in which the culture is so diverse.Gothic architecture appeared in St. Petersburg in 1777, it was the Palace and Chesma Chesma Church.As is the case with the "Petrine Baroque", these structures do not fully meet the style.Gothic elements functions as an external attribution - facades, arches, numerous turrets, tall spiers.Load-bearing structures of buildings were carried out under the simplified scheme.In fact, it was a pseudo yet in the 19th century was built a large number of churches and secular buildings.
architectural style "classicism" was developed in the period from 1760 to 1780.Petersburg at the time was ready for change.The buildings, built in the classical style, fit perfectly into the urban landscape.Among the most notable buildings are the following:
- "Imperial Academy of Arts", built on Vasilyevsky Island in 1764 -1788 years.
- Yusupov Palace (1771-1773).
- Hanging Gardens of the Small Hermitage (1764-1775).
- Armenian Church (1771-1776).
- Marble Palace (1768-1785)
- Tauride Palace (1783-1789).
- Mining Institute of the Empress Catherine (1806-1808).
Classicism was a forerunner of visiting St. Petersburg, Russian Empire.Change of direction occurred unnoticed.While the architectural style of the Empire was in demand in France as part of the tumultuous changes taking place in the country.It reflects the ambition of Napoleon and became a symbol of new life for the French.A Russian Empire replaced classicism, nothing more.Petersburg architecture developed by its own laws.A significant impact on its formation had a French culture.
Architecture & Photography
Buildings residential and sacral, manor houses and churches, prisons and offices were at home.Any structure which is relevant to public life was to have architectural signs.Some of the houses were built in strict accordance with the rules of the building aesthetics, and the architect is often able to achieve impressive results.Masterpieces of architectural art had to sketch because photos did not yet exist.Photoart appeared and began to develop only in the first half of the 19th century.However, not immediately able to replace the image in the photo.Architecture - is always a rather complicated picture, with lots of shades and tones, and the usual daguerreotype did not give them, on a plate receives only flat spot with subtle contours.And the artists continued to draw.
But the years passed, picture improved, and that's the moment when any building is made possible to photograph.Architecture, aptly classic, is "frozen music", and many wanted the music stored on memory in the form of pictures.People posed on the background of their own homes or tried to withdraw near some famous buildings.All kinds of architectural styles, which have a picture at home was considered good form, became popular.At the dawn of photography, most images were either family, or with images of buildings.
style of architecture, with examples
examples of architectural styles set, each of them has certain features that characterize the area, the types of ownership and time period in which this building was erected.
separately, the most famous styles of architecture can provide concrete examples:
- Empire - "Arch of the General Staff" in St. Petersburg's Palace Square (1819 - 1829), architect Carlo Rossi;
- classicism - "Trinity Cathedral in Alexander Nevsky Monastery" (1776 - 1790), the architect of the old.St. Petersburg;
- Gothic - "Sevastyanov House" (1863 - 1866), architect epilepsy, Ekaterinburg;
- Baroque - "The Stroganov Palace" in St. Petersburg, on the Nevsky Prospect (1752 - 1754), architect Rastrelli;
- renaissance - Cathedral "Santa Maria del Fiore" in Florence (1417 - 1436), architect Brunelleschi;
- Nouveau - "House of Singer" in St. Petereburge (1902 - 1904), architect Suzor.
examples of architecture evidence of the development of various genres over the centuries.
original examples of the architecture of today
Today the world has enough creative architects, who are engaged-art projects.Other projects are purely utilitarian character, but there are those that can be called original.For example, in Japan, in vogue at home on the balls.Since the Land of the Rising Sun is an earthquake, the Japanese architects began setting houses on enormous balls made of highly durable material.Thus, during the earthquake house just starts to swing, swings aftershocks can not cause him any harm.There
original buildings, which are the result of creative design ideas.The famous Spanish city of Barcelona, which is rightly ranked first in the world in the number of original buildings, the architects have created another masterpiece.This house, inverted "upside down."The structure stands on the roof of their uniqueness and happy tourists.