What is carol?

the vastness of the post-Soviet space in everyday speech and the media can often hear the phrase "Russian Christmas carols" and "texts carols", the use of which is confined to specific calendar dates.

So what carol?How often it is performed in modern Russia?What is the specific text of the calendar are Christmas carols in Russian?

Kolyadovalnye ceremonies in the context of Russian and Ukrainian cultures

Carols originally consisted of praise ceremonial songs dedicated to the sun, performed during the funeral procession from house to house.Their origin is lost in the centuries.The appearance of these workarounds its rites apparently required to Ukrainian folk traditions and superstitions associated with the winter solstice - one of the three major annual events, along with the spring equinox and the summer solstice, celebrated ancestors of modern Ukrainians.

Specifics bypass rites

Actually, changing the time of execution, content and idealogii carols songs started to happen under the assertive

influence of the Orthodox Church.It sought to destroy an agrarian - pagan - forming part of the ongoing rituals.Therefore, over time kolyadovalny process as a traditional procession on certain time periods divided into several branches of typological the time of the (Christmas, Epiphany, New Year), characters (laity, clergy) and the nature of the text - the appointment carols songs.So, it could be a thanksgiving hymns and hymns praising Christ.

due to a particularly strong pressure of the Orthodox Church in the traditional culture of Russian folk carols virtually disappeared from the ritual accompanying the annual cycle.However, modernity has reached a certain part of circumvention practices.They have replaced a traditional Christmas carols, songs improvised lyrics.

Theme songs, carols, some ethnic groups Russian

As mentioned above, the text of carols magically blessed the owners of the house for good luck, plodovistost cattle.Filled with ritual ordained wealth of crops and income in material goods.However, songs, carols are divided into several types, the text of which has a different semantic nuance.

ovsenkah can clearly be seen in the economic theme of requests, supported by the executive regulations.In schedrovki carols retain the text of the requirement, but the basic meaning the owner bears the spell for good luck.Grape is characterized obihodno-romantic lyrics, often reflects the theme longing bride and groom and configures the listener on a friendly footing in the family.

Ovsenev as one of the Russian rites kolyadovalnyh

Thus, in Russian there are several types of ritual bypass houses, related to each other, but are present in different regions of Russia.In the Volga region, some of the middle and southern region (Tambov, Ryazan, Nizhny Novgorod, Moscow, Voronezh, Tula) Christmas carols performed on Ovsenev - New Year's Eve or New Year's Eve itself, but a process called caroling, respectively ovsenkanem.Texts ovsenek no different from other types of texts carols, but are a part of the refrain "Avsenev, Avsenev!" Or "Oh, Ovsenev!".The speeches of this kind can be illustrated by:

Mostochek paved,
cloth littered,
Gvozdmi killed.
Au Avsenev, au, Avsenev!To
Well, who go
By the mostochku?
Avsenev go there.
Au Avsenev, au, Avsenev!

Thus, the question of what the carol, acquainted with carrying out of this action on the territory of the Volga region, the middle and southern regions of Russia, it is possible to formulate a response indicating voskhvalyayusche-Guardian nature of the action as a ritual peculiar spell owners and their homesfor good luck, but if they are a friendly attitude towards the villagers.

schedrovki - mythological kolyadovalnye songs

close in character content and direction of the actions of the participants in the South-Russian territories are schedrovki with choruses "Generous / Good evening."

Isolation schedrovok main story, because of the large number of late the ideological layers, is very difficult, we know only that they had a religious and mystical subjects with the addition of conventional demotic texts on the Life of the Saints.With this merger was planned to strengthen the magical component schedrovalnogo text:

Schedrovochka schedrovala,
Under the small window the night.
Chi sheep, sheep chi,
Serve Blintsov,
not bite, do not break,
And let the whole.
Christmas Eve, oh, good evening.

few words about the carols grapes

In the northern Russian have rituals also mark the Christmastime and New Year, but having a part of the refrain "grapes, red and green!".Grapes Slavs was a symbol of wealth and love, so these songs were sung in the homes of unmarried men and honeymooners.If the text ovsenek schedrovok storyline and songs and mummers consisted of evangelical and mythological themes, the grapes are romantic allegory, the texts of which girls and boys are different.You can give an example of such a ritual text:

We went-went
At Holy Russia.

We Suka Suka-
Gospodinova yard.

Gospodinov yard
twelve vents,

A svetёl month
Ivan,

Will you marry
We marvel.

grammatical construction kolyadnyh texts and especially their use

What carol in terms of semantic and grammatical turn?Extant folk ritual texts consist mainly of decasyllabic, divided into two pentasyllabic hemistichs.Russian and Ukrainian schedrovki often consist of octosyllabic verses with chetyrёhslozhnym hemistich.It seems most likely that, filled strictly on certain dates - Christmas, New Year, Easter, previously confined to a pagan holiday, the Orthodox Church under the pressure bypass rituals shifted one time period and contributed to the confusion of their textual and ideological components.In favor of this theory also speak of the facts in some regions grapes for Easter.

role of clowns in kolyadovalnyh rites

What carol without the optional presence of clowns sets the tone for the game mood bypass the process?In what order they visited homes of villagers and neighbors?Fulfilling text carols procession usually moved home village in the west to the east - to miss someone's home was a bad omen and a great insult.The ritual Costumed people often act out three groups of images - or evil otherworldly forces, animals or people of another ethnicity.The element Costumed concluded hints of friendly relations with people of other nationalities, reflecting the surrounding living beings and the fear of otherworldly force accelerates during Christmastime army of Christ.So widespread was the custom of the Slavs communion Mummers after bypass or forcibly ritual bathing them in the hole for the purpose of cleansing from acquired during Costumed contamination.Children do not usually ryadilis and traveled in groups to their homes.

mummers costumes and attributes

Costumes masquerade designed to portray animals and evil, often represented coats, turned out.Next added body parts and attributes, reinforcing the similarity - sticks and branches for the bird's beak, birch bark masks and wooden horns, tails-panicle of supernatural beings, and so on.When the image couple of rich merchants in the women's and men's clothing ryadilis boys and girls, representing the Roma or Arapov - face smeared with soot.To heighten the deterrent kolyadovschiki stood on stilts and portrayed on the backs of the humps.

Kolyadovalnaya kitchen

during Christmas time also prepare specific dishes, most of which are pastries.For example, this dish is Christmas carols (the gate) - small boxes from a mixture of rye and wheat flour measuring 5 by 5 centimeters, filled with meat, jam or other filling.

modern roundabout rites

What carol in modern Russian reality?Does it exist today?Modern Russian carols, unlike the old Russian and Ukrainian, who, like many centuries ago, held from sunset to sunrise, start early in the morning as usual.If before this process was a magical character, and with the advent of mummers played out small comic scenes, the modern version of the meaning of the bypass rite comes down to a festive game, in which at least execution carols waits and entertainers receive from the owners of the house some yummy -cakes, candy and other goodies.

Modern rites performed songs, carols, the text of which is either quite distorted translation of authentic poems in modern language, or is completely improvised.These songs can be easily found.How can I find the original, the real Christmas carols?The text of any of them may have survived in the memory of our grandparents.Worth porassprashivat them of such rites.Often they can tell a lot of interesting.Songs, Christmas carols, the text of which already knew everything - from small to large, and today you can listen to the recording.Some of them are recorded in this "field" conditions, others are theatrical performances.An example of such improvisation can serve the following text carols in Russian:

Good evening, good people!
Let the holiday fun is!
Merry Christmas congratulations!
happiness, joy, desire!
Generous evening, good evening!
good people to your health!

After these words, perhaps a continuation of the wishes of domestic or ritual reading of the following texts.In any case, in this manner greetings, supplemented by the corresponding attributes of the festival, will make it an unforgettable experience for the recipient, and will delight originality in the selection of the national colors.