What is "Gzhel"?Craft or high art?The answer lies on the surface.Gzhel, whose history goes back to the early 14th century, several centuries had visited in several guises.This "impermanence" does not detract from the merits of artistic craftsmanship.For the first time people trade "Gzhel" was mentioned in the posthumous testament of Ivan Kalita, the Grand Duke of Moscow, in 1340, which he commanded to inherit ceramic workshops profitable to his son.
Gzhel or zhgel
name "Gzhel", the story of the appearance of which is still a matter of controversy, nevertheless exists in its present form for a long time.The spread of views has no practical significance.Some scientists etymologists say that it comes from the river Gzhelka, Gzholka or Gzhelka flowing in the upper Dnieper, other experts tend to believe that the original folk craft "Gzhel" called zhgel as ceramics burned and burned.A letter has already rearranged themselves Russian commoners are different perennial habit all pereinachit, paraphrase and
White clay for pharmacists
What Gzhel?This place, long since become famous high white clay, production of which had been established in the 17th century.In 1663 issued a decree of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, says: "In the parish Gzhel extract clay, which is suitable for pharmaceutical vessels alchemical yes."And in Moscow at the address apothecary order delivered 15 wagons loaded with clay.Since glinodobyvayuschy plant "Gzhel" became a supplier of white clay for Moscow pharmacists.A Russian scientist Mikhail Lomonosov said so: "There is hardly a pure land, without primeshaniya more than Gzhel, koyu chemists call virgin, for its whiteness and purity."Besides white clays, in "Gzhel bush" hidden underground several types of industrial clays suitable for the production of various products, including art.Scientists have tried to determine the quantities of by simple calculations, but nothing came of it - it became apparent that explored layers - this is just a small fraction of actual deposits.The conclusion is clear: the raw material will be enough to generations.
What gzhel terms of pottery craftsmen
Nearly four years Gzhel shops were made of clay pottery utensils manner stove tiles and simple children's toys.
In 1812, in the province, there were 25 plants that produce a huge number of kitchen utensils.Especially prized products factories and Laptev Ermila Ivanov, located in the village of Kuzyaeva.Buyers pay attention not only on the name brand, it was important to make sure that the product is made by one of the three most respected potters: Kokunom Ivan, or Ivan Gusyatnikova Nikifor Srosleem.While the forerunners of the world-famous Gzhel art products were toys and clay figurines, animals, birds, horses and dolls.Each piece is sure to find a buyer.
What Gzhel from the perspective of foreigners?Once near the village of Minino found formation especially plastic light-gray clay in the local porcelain factory launched production of earthenware, from which the graceful pitchers and vases, kvass and kumgans.In the first half of the 19th century began production of the classic blue and white Gzhel dishes.Foreigners lovers of Russian culture, immediately noticed the unusual items that were cheap, and the beauty of the famous porcelain masterpieces surpassed German masters.Thus, the phrase "Gzhel - dishes" has acquired a definite meaning.On the porters orders fell, it was the beginning of an era of genuine Gzhelian art.
At the time, Russia did not have enough crockery or porcelain stoneware kitchen in wealthy homes used silverware and middle-class people were content with scattered plates, cups and saucers made of baked clay of poor quality.It is not surprising that with the advent of Gzhel dishes started a real boom.Merchants and industrialists soon became clear that the market for cookware requires a huge number of beautiful sets, coffee and tea, simple and festive.And Gzhel tableware could not be better suited for this purpose.
Old Believer Yakov Kuznetsov
In 1812 Novoharitonovskogo villager, named James V. Kuznetsov, an Old Believer by faith, opens a small porcelain production, which soon grew to the size of a huge enterprise with branches in Rybinsk, Tver and Riga.Products style "Gzhel", a photo of which are presented on the page, demanding excellence in their manufacture.In addition, each new plant also needs specialists, and Yakov Vasilyevich began to invite craftsmen and artists from outside.People come with their families, they provide shelter and create favorable conditions in the hope that they will remain for a long time.And so it was, the children invited specialists inherited the profession of parents and honor to carry it forward.Thus, the porcelain industry has successfully developed, fishing "Gzhel" flourished.The share of orders, which made foreigners accounted for more than 80 percent of total output.The phrase "Gzhel - dishes" dominated the trade.Products needed more, porcelain factories began to suffocate from lack of manpower and qualified to take was nowhere.Breeders doubled wages and salaries to employees by a third.Those wishing to work in the factories Gzhel immediately increased and staffing has been for some time settled.Mills earned in full force and now have enough products for the Russian market with excess and was left for abroad.
material and technology
field of white clay in Gzhel areas includes 17 varieties, of which there are two main - the first for the production of pottery and porcelain, this "belozhguschihsya" grade, and second - red ceramics "Gzhel" andmajolica.
enormous potential of porcelain production and the king saw Moscow and All Russia Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov.After some deliberation the monarch decided.Across the earth Gzhelian abolished serfdom, artisans got freestyle king's decree and were assigned to court administration.The scientist Mikhail Lomonosov, along with his associate Dmitry Vinogradov discovered a new recipe for porcelain, which is fully consistent with the unique structure of Gzhel clay.The discovery was made in 1748 and since then began the history of Russian porcelain in a global sense.In a short time we built the Imperial plant, which has become a major industrial enterprise for the production of earthenware products in the territory of Russia.A ceramic "Gzhel" soon acquired an industrial status.
Popularity Gzhelian fishing
In the 19th century Gzhel pottery spread throughout the Russian territory.Tellingly, the more on the porcelain factory output, the better it became.In the annals of archival imperial office at the time the order is stored on the dishes for the royal table, drawn Gzhelian manufacturer of fine china Stepan Afanasyev: "... in the style of an overseas samolutchey kindness ...", which means "in accordance with the best international quality."And it must be assumed that the master artists and craftsmen worked for Afanasiev, brilliantly coped with the task.Even then, earthenware factories competing with each other, trying to get ahead of each other in quality.It was a healthy competition, in which there was competition.On the contrary, the master tried to share experiences and sympathetic to disclose to each other secrets.
Classic blue and white
Gradually all products Russian porcelain factories, marketed under the brand name "Gzhel" photo show about it, moved on cobalt blue coloring.This color has become a "brand name" in the first dish, and then for the rest of the products, toys and gifts.Monochrome cobalt, a beautiful bright blue color was produced in 1735 by the Swedish mineralogist Georg Brandt of rock pyrite.
addition to "corporate" colors, Gzhel porcelain different plot perfectly executed drawings.Artists painted spontaneously, without sketches and sketches, just "fair copy", and they do it.Gzhel picture - it is always verified artistic image that is rarely repeated."Under the blueprint," the blue-and-white products are produced only as souvenirs, and even then in small batches.Basically, "Gzhel" - is exclusive copies made at a good artistic level.
technologies used in the production of Gzhel, diverse and effective enough.Master is not looking for simple ways to work on complex diagrams on the go learning new techniques.Recently Gzhel artists began to use the so-called mixed media painting, overglaze and underglaze, when the main royal figure is applied to the wet clay under the glaze, and a more detailed pattern has drawn on the glaze.I must say that this method has become the latest in a string of innovations, as it was then Gzhel products are no longer a luxury and entered the daily life.Thus, the blue-and-white sets, dining sets, jewelry boxes, children's toys and other products have been put on stream.
times of stagnation
After the 1917 revolution most of the porcelain factory was closed as there was no one to do business in manufacturing - talented engineers, one and all, have emigrated, and the remaining staff could not cope with the tasks.Nevertheless, after two decades of inactivity fine porcelain art gradually beginning to recover.The process was launched thanks to the revival of asceticism ceramic artist, enthusiast Gzhelian crafts.
his contribution to the revival of art made Gzhelian artist NI Bessarabova, it supported the sculptor ceramist known critic AB Saltykov.Under their leadership, folk craft has been fully restored and again blue and white gilt shone products worldwide.
Currently art "Gzhel" continues to evolve, a new generation of talented artists working in the traditional manner, but with the use of cutting-edge technologies."Gzhel bush" is sixty kilometers from Moscow, stretching in the direction of Murom, it brings together 27 villages, each of which live and work hereditary potters and painters.
Today "Gzhel" - is the pride of the country, Russia's business card in the field of fine arts, along with Hohloma, Zhostovo craft, Fedoskino miniature - all crafts of Russia."Gzhel" rightly heads this prestigious list.