Khokhloma - what is it?

Khokhloma - what is it?First of all, it is an ancient Russian folk craft.Khokhloma painting, Golden Khokhloma, a broad stratum of Russian culture.The symbol of the painting in the style of "Khokhloma" is a fiery Firebird, fairy tale character.Capital fishing - Semenov city, located north of Nizhny Novgorod.Unlike Gzhelian artistic production that brings together 27 towns and villages in a "bush" Khokhloma was concentrated in one place.Therefore, its development continued long enough.Art fisheries component was also significant, as the talented craftsmen are not common, and education, as such, was not.

history Golden khokhloma

Art Khokhloma craft is rooted in the late 17th century, during the heyday of rapid iconographic art.Period of settlement lands Novgorod Old Believers who did not accept the church reforms of Patriarch Nikon, coincided with the emergence of new ways of gilding icons.It is in the Nizhny Novgorod region, the villages have learned to paint icons in gold, but without the use of th

e precious metal.Wooden salaries of icons sprinkled silver pounded into dust and then coated with linseed oil and put in the oven.Silver coating miraculously transformed into glittering gold.Technology of the time did not provide an additional means to facilitate the process, everything was done manually.Some artists somehow adapt, invent simple tools to help, but in general, Khokhloma painting fully provide only manual labor.The main tasks of production have been turning, which require specific skills.The blanks are machined one master, primed and burn them to others, and others painted.But in any case, the results of joint work were good and production flourished.

origin of high art

It appeared on the Volga gold painted Khokhloma.From icons quickly moved to the production of tableware made of wood covered with gold pattern.Silver was not enough, and it was replaced by tin.The figures were not worse, on the contrary, painting acquired a noble matte finish, and after polishing the paint starts to shine like the sun.Semenov artists have come together in cooperatives, painting "Khokhloma" gained fame far beyond the borders of the Nizhny Novgorod province.One after another came the merchants, ordered masters painted wooden utensils huge parties, and fishing began to develop rapidly.

first time cut of lime and paint Khokhloma patterns spoons and ladles.Grateful descendants even erected a monument to Semyon-Lozhkarev as a tribute to the masters and artists of the time.Craftsmen worked tirelessly, Nizhny Novgorod dishes were brought and successfully sold on the great Macarius market place, the most famous Russian fair.Income dishes and to Moscow.In the capital of Russia while constantly attended by representatives of foreign merchants, the Germans, franzuzy Englishmen.They immediately noticed the unusual khokhloma products.

Khokhloma - what is it in terms of the world community?

In the middle of the 19th century Khokhloma painting on dishes, furniture and clothing came to be known abroad.World Exhibition in Paris, which took place in 1889, paved the way for the Golden Khokhloma worldwide.Khokhloma painting went on the export of a wide stream.The markets of Western Europe, Southeast Asia, India, China, and later the North American continent traded products Russian folk crafts.

High demand for products the Volga masters became a stimulus for further development of the Golden Khokhloma.The range of production increased several times, in addition to spoons made dishes and plates, barrels, Krynki for spices, salt shakers, various postavtsa, glasses and mugs.Especially appreciated in the West, the so-called Bratina - huge crockery in the form of boat with a dozen buckets.The name speaks for itself, the dishes intended for the fraternal banquet.Festive theme is always accompanied khokhloma products.And an inexhaustible source of subjects and themes for them - it is the whole of Russia.Khokhloma is inextricably linked with the very source, and its history.

Ware not only

Also dishes, large batches produced household items: boxes, snuff boxes, small furniture items, attics, cupboards, tables and benches.Golden Khokhloma could be ordered, it is worth much more expensive, but the price does not bother anyone.By the end of the 19th century Khokhloma become more expensive, because their production considerably more complicated.There were floral designs, which continued to ancestral traditions, but at the same time he carried a special natural artistic style of writing, which differs khokhloma.Pictures taken in those days artists enthusiasts, drawings and sketches support the development of new trends in art Khokhloma painting.

Khokhloma products significantly enlarged, they were painted in the manner of "Kudrin", with gold leaves and flowers in the style of the drawing female shawl when ornament consists of several fragments, merging into one image.One of the most revered figures khokhloma was "an herb," ​​and in the first half of the 20th century, artists created "Hohloma ornament".So a classic style.The coloring of the picture at the same time more complicated, strokes become thinner, and the plot has got signs of certainty.The artistic style called "Khokhloma", pictures and sketches which it confirms its continued development.At the same time in central Russia began to appear the arts, like Khokhloma painting, Fedoskino miniatures and Zhostovo trays.A little later earned Gzhel factories for the production of ceramic tableware, which soon became as popular as Khokhloma wood.Russian Artistic crafts developed successfully, Gzhel, Khokhloma, Zhostovo, Fedoskino - this is not a complete list of the planes that can be compared to high art.

Technique

khokhloma art - it is a complex process that involves many technical subtleties.It is not enough to paint the right product - its form and parameters also have to be perfect.If the master decided to cut wood in the form of a swan Bratina and paint it in the style of the golden Khokhloma, it is primarily obtained form must repeat all the elegance of a noble bird, and its neck is sure to be a "swan" bend what we observe in nature.

Khokhloma - what is it from a technical point of view?Guided by the rule authentication product, its compliance with certain canons of highly level, specialists of "Khokhloma Painting" derived a formula the quality of its products, which formed the basis for the production of khokhloma products.Thus, all the processes in the company are not subject to the requirements of the market, stimulating mass production, and the laws of the artistic environment, customer-oriented, having a taste.This policy guide has already borne fruit, orders began to come not from gift shops, and the famous art galleries and galleries.

process of making art products Khokhloma style - is a complex process chain.Wood is used only hardwood, with preference given to the lime tree, the most ductile and responsive material.Material passes a stage of natural drying in the open air throughout the year, and then log on Comley bloom ingots, which finally dried for another three months.Thereafter, the wood already is suitable for machining on lathes.Selected pieces are for the manufacture of dolls, large vases are machined from solid ridges.For spoons and ladles suitable timber sapwood part, it is fairly easy to cut and does not crack.

machined workpiece and cut called "linen" before painting it, "underwear" is dried again at a temperature of about 100 degrees.Thereafter, articles are primed and loaded again in the oven at 120 degrees.Then the workpiece polished, chips and gouges on the surface of shpaklyuyut and coated with a thin layer of varnish.Shortly before the complete drying of the powder coated billet aluminum and pound it so that the entire surface is covered evenly.Further, the silver-frosted cups, spoons and saucers, vases and bowls come to the artists for finishing - Khokhloma art painting.

After painting the product three times lacquered, with an intermediate heating to 130 degrees.This aluminum coating acquires a golden hue, the product is ready for packaging and shipment.

Types

painting in the 18th century Khokhloma painting reached its culmination, the demand for art products all increased, and Nizhny Novgorod masters at that time already been on top of his creativity.It was then developed two main types of Golden Khokhloma painting - "horse" and "background".

Khokhloma, patterns that were painted in the manner of "Horse" painting is drawing on the golden field, executed in black and red colors.The artist draws delicate strokes mesh pattern, following the any one of the following styles:

  • "Gingerbread" - a stylized image of the sun enclosed in a geometric shape, a square, a diamond or a cut circle.The method at first sight simple, but from the solar circle, framed by curls-rays, it was not tear glance, so organically combined with the great luminary surrounding frame.
  • "Travnik" - herbal ornament, pattern or the coastal sedge meadow grass.
  • "Leaf under berry" - painted with a lot of leaves and berries, flowers and stems, intricately intertwined with each other.

In contrast to the "horse", Khokhloma, which patterns deposited gold on the basis of red or black, are considered "background."The most interesting variety of paintings on the background is the "Kudrin," which is a stylized image of leaves and flowers.Repeated Kudrevatykh curls, turning into intricate patterns, flowers, leaves and all kinds of berries, garden and forest.This style of painting is notable for the wide use of contour drawing strokes, profitable set off the individual parts.

Catalogues

Since the mid-20th century Khokhloma painting began to organize, printed catalogs of the most interesting specimens, and the best were awarded the certificate.The works of master artists in the style of "Khokhloma", photos and sketches which were published in the press, became participants of various competitions and exhibitions.Authors of artistic articles received prizes and awards for his work.In such shows everyone could buy a product made in the artistic style called "Khokhloma".Photo for memory with the master-manufacturers make immediately.For a long time after a beautiful lacquered thing he pleased his master.

Khokhloma eyes of a child

kindergartens, nursery gardens and even in Soviet times, received furniture, made in the style of Khokhloma painting.And though this artistic style has always been considered "adults", children are sincerely glad to each table, painted by the artist.Of course, it was not handmade, products were painted in a furniture factory, by screen printing.But the impression of high art Khokhloma painting was present, and it is the children happy.Together with the kids happy parents.Thus, children khokhloma was no worse than the "adult".

Theme for school essays

training programs varied.Khokhloma - what it is, from the point of view of the teacher?In schools of Moscow and the Moscow region, as well as in other Russian cities in the training program is on the theme of Russian folk art, which in the first place is the art of Khokhloma painting.Its long history and world famous enable students to express their own opinion, express it on paper and get an estimate.It could be a whole essay on a topic or a short story.Khokhloma as art continues to develop successfully, it is worthy of attention-school seniors.However, the lower classes, too, can participate in the debate.

Khokhloma in the song genre

Art is often combined with other categories of work.Art Khokhloma painting is no exception.The song "Khokhloma" long won popularity.She performed the singer and the singers, chorus and soloists of the individual.The melody is beautiful, too, soulful verses, written from the heart.Song Contest "Khokhloma" is not just a place of honor.