Modernism - a movement in art characterized by the departure from previous historical experience art up to its complete denial.Modernism appeared in the late 19th century, but its heyday came in the early 20th century.The development of modernism was accompanied by significant changes in the literature, the visual arts and architecture.Culture and art can not always be spontaneous changes, but the need for change as a means of modernism in the early 20th century are already being felt.Basically, the update process is calm, but sometimes militant modernism took shape, as was the case with the young painter Salvador Dali, who was trying to build an art surrealism without delay.However, culture and art have the property of timeliness, so no one can speed up or slow down the process.
evolution of modernism
paradigm of modernism has become dominant in the first half of the 20th century, but then the desire for radical change in the arts began to decline, and the French "art nouveau", German "Art Nouvea
Modernism in art or art of modernism?
understand the prioritization of these formulations was to writers, artists and architects of the whole civilized world.Some representatives of the leading lights in the field of art believed that modernism - a long-awaited change, and should be to prioritize the further development of civilization, others withdrawn modernism role in the renovation of certain areas of the field of art and nothing more.Controversy continued to prove his innocence to anyone not possible.However, modernism in art came, and this was the impetus for further development of it in all directions.The changes were not immediately noticeable affects the inertia of society, as usual, started the discussion of new ideas, someone was for change, someone they did not accept.Then, to the forefront of the art of modernism has acted, directors, famous writers, musicians, anyone who thought progressive, began to promote new things, and gradually modernism was recognized.
Modernism in the visual arts
main directions of modernism in field painting, portrait drawing, sculpture and other forms of visual art emerged in the second half of the nineteenth century.The foundation was laid in 1863, when Paris was open so-called "Salon des Refuses", where artists gathered avngardisty and presented their work.Name of cabin speaks for itself, the public did not accept abstract painting, he rejected it.Nevertheless, the mere appearance of "Salon des Refuses" said that the art of modernism is waiting for recognition.
Soon modernist trends took concrete form, the following trends in art:
- Abstract expressionism - a special style of painting, the artist spends his creativity minimum amount of time, throws on canvas paint randomly touches brushes for the painting,randomly causing strokes.
- Dadaism - works of art in the style of collage layout on canvas a few fragments of one subject.Images are usually imbued with the idea of negation, cynical approach to the topic.Style arose immediately after the end of World War I and became a display of feelings of hopelessness, prevailing in society.
- Cubism - randomly arranged geometric shapes.The style itself is highly artistic, authentic masterpieces created cubist Pablo Picasso.Several different approaches to creativity painter Paul Cezanne - his paintings are also in the treasury of world art.
- Style: - the rejection of the visible reality and replacing actual images of decorative stylization.Style with great potential, but it is fully implemented only Vincent van Gogh and Paul Gauguin.
Surrealism, one of the main strongholds of modernism
Surrealism - dream and reality, a genuine fine art reflecting the most extraordinary artist's thoughts.Most notable were the surrealist painter Salvador Dali, Ernst Fuchs and Arno Breker, which together make up the "Golden Triangle of Surrealism."
painting style with a touch of extreme
Fauvism - a particular style, causing a feeling of passion and energy, characterized by the exaltation of color and "wild" expressive colors.The plot is also in many cases to the point of extreme.The leaders of this trend were Henri Matisse and André Derain.
Futurism - an organic combination of art and principles of Cubism fomizma, a riot of colors mixed with intersections of straight lines, triangles and angles.The dynamics of the image is all-consuming character in the picture all in motion, the energy can be seen in every detail.
Style Georgian artist Niko Pirosmani
Primitivism - artistic image in the style conscious and deliberate simplification, resulting in a pattern similar to the primitive work of the child or wall paintings in the caves of primitive tribes.Primitive style painting does not reduce its artistic level, if it is painted a true artist.A good representative of primitivism was Niko Pirosmani.
Modernism in literature replaced an established classical canons of narrative.Formed in the early 20th century style of writing novels and short stories gradually began to show signs of stagnation, there was some form of uniformity of presentation.Then the writers began to turn to other, previously used interpretations of artistic conception.Readers were offered psychological and philosophical concepts.So there was a style that gets the definition of "stream of consciousness" based on deep insight into the psychology of the characters.The most striking example of modernism in literature is a novel by American writer William Faulkner called "Sound and the Fury."
Each of the heroes of the novel analyzed in terms of its vital principles, moral qualities and aspirations.Methods Faulkner is justified, since it is due to the fair and in-depth analysis of the characters have an interesting story.Through its research manner of William Faulkner is included in the "golden five" writers of the United States, as well as the two other writers - John Steinbeck and Scott Fitzgerald, who in his work trying to follow the rule-depth analysis.
representatives of modernism in literature:
- Walt Whitman, best known for his poetry collection "Leaves of Grass."
- Charles Baudelaire - poetry collection "Flowers of Evil".
- Arthur Rambo - poetry "Illuminations", "One summer in hell."
- Fyodor Dostoevsky with the works of "The Brothers Karamazov" and "Crime and Punishment" is Russian modernism in literature.
guiding role of vector forces that influence the writers - founders of modernism, carried philosophers Henri Bergson, William James, Nietzsche, and others.Do not stay aside and Sigmund Freud.
Through modernism in the first thirty years of the 20th century were radically changed literary forms.
the modern age, writers and poets
Among the most famous literary modernism period are the following writers and poets:
- Anna Akhmatova (1889-1966) - Russian poet with a tragic fate, lost his family during the years of Stalinist repression.He is the author of several collections of poetry, as well as the famous poem "Requiem".
- Franz Kafka (1883-1924) - an extremely controversial Austrian writer, whose works were considered absurd.In life, the writer of his novels were not published.After the death of Kafka all his works have been published, despite the fact that he strongly objected to this and during the life conjured his executors burn novels soon after his death.Personally destroy the manuscript the writer could not because they went to the hands and return them to the author of one of his admirers was not going to.
- William Faulkner (1898-1962) - Nobel Prize for Literature in 1949, which is famous for having created a fictional county in the American heartland, called Yoknapatawpha County, inhabiting his characters, and began to describe their lives.Faulkner's works are incredibly complex structural, but if the reader fails to grasp the thread of the narrative, then remove it from the novel, the story or the story of the famous American writer is no longer possible.
- Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961) - one of the most loyal followers of modernism in literature.His novels and stories are striking in their life-affirming force.Throughout his life, the writer was an irritant to the US authorities, it bothered ridiculous suspicions methods that the CIA used to bring Hemingway to his side, was absurd.It all ended a nervous breakdown writer and temporary placement in a psychiatric hospital.The writer was only one love in his life - his hunting rifle.July 2, 1961 Hemingway committed suicide by shooting himself with a gun this.
- Thomas Mann (1875-1955) - German writer, essayist, one of the most active political writers in Germany.All his works are imbued with politics, but its artistic value, they do not lose from this.Creativity Mann also no stranger to erotic, example of this - the novel "The Confessions of Felix Krull."The protagonist of the work recalls the character of Oscar Wilde's Dorian Gray.Signs of modernism in the works of Thomas Mann's obvious.
- Marcel Proust (1871-1922) - French writer, author of the seven-volume works of "In Search of Lost Time", which is considered one of the most significant samples of the literature of the 20th century.Proust is a staunch follower of modernism as the most promising way of literary development.
- Virginia Woolf (1882-1942) - English writer, is considered the most reliable follower of "stream of consciousness".Modernism was a writer for the meaning of her life, in addition to numerous novels of Virginia Woolf in the asset several film adaptations of her works.
Literary Modernism has had a significant influence on the work of writers and poets in terms of improvement and development.
phrase "Modernism in architecture" refers to the term "modern architecture", as it traces the logical connection.But the concept of modernity does not always mean "modern" is more appropriate word "modern".Art Nouveau and Modernism - two different concepts.
modernist architecture implies the beginning of creative pioneers of modern architecture, and their activity in a certain period of time, with the 20's and 70's of the last century.Modern architecture dates from the later figures.Designated fifty years is the period of modernism in architecture, while the emergence of new trends.
modern architecture modern architecture - a separate direction of architecture, such as the construction of a European functional 1920-30 or the immutability of rationalism of Russian architecture of the twenties, when houses were built thousands of one project.It is the German "Bauhaus", "art deco" in France, the international style of architecture organic and brutalism.All of these are branches of one tree - modern architecture.
Prestavitelyami modernism in architecture are: Le Corbusier, Oscar Niemeyer, Richard Neutra, Walter Gropius, Frank Lloyd Wright and others.
Modernism in music
Modernism - a replacement of styles in principle, but in music changes depend primarily on the overall direction of the ethnographic culture of the society.Progressive flow of cultural segments are inevitably accompanied by transformations in the world of music.Modernity dictates the conditions of Music in circulation in society.However, the culture of modernism does not change the classical musical forms.