For decades, historians, art historians, journalists and people interested in the debate about the mysteries of "Mona Lisa".What is the secret of her smile?Who really captures the portrait of Leonardo?Every year the Louvre comes over 8 million visitors wishing to enjoy his creation.
So how did this modestly dressed woman with a light, barely perceptible smile, took pride of place on the podium among the legendary creatures of other great artists?
Let's start to forget that the "Mona Lisa" by Leonardo da Vinci - a brilliant creation of the artist.What we see before us?With a faint smile on his face looking at us no longer young, modestly dressed woman.She was not beautiful, but something catches her eye.Glory - a surprising phenomenon.Picture of mediocrity will not unleash any advertising, and "Mona Lisa" - the card of the famous Florentine, known to the whole world.
picture quality is impressive in it at the highest level, consolidated all the achievements of the Renaissance.He
It artists were the first fans of the "Mona Lisa" by Leonardo da Vinci.Paintings of the XVI century is literally filled with traces of influence of the "Mona Lisa."Take, for example, the great Raphael: he seemed ill Leonardo, features the Mona Lisa can be caught in the portrait florentinki in "Lady with the Unicorn", and what is most surprising, even in male portrait Baldasara Castiglione.Leonardo, without knowing it, created a visual aid for his followers, who opened a lot of new painting, taking as a basis a portrait of "Mona Lisa."
Giorgio Vasari, a painter and art critic, was the first to translate the word in the glory of the "Mona Lisa."In his "Life of famous painters ..." he called portrait of the divine rather than human, besides, he gave this assessment, without ever seeing a live picture.Author merely expressed the general opinion, thus providing "Mona Lisa" a high reputation in professional circles.
who posed for a portrait?
only confirms how went the creation of the portrait are the words of Giorgio Vazavi, who claims that the painting depicts the wife of Francesco Giocondo, a Florentine tycoon, 25-year-old Mona Lisa.He says that while da Vinci painted portraits, around the girl constantly played the lyre and sang, and court jesters maintain a good mood, it is because of Mona Lisa's smile is so gentle and pleasant.
But there is a lot of evidence that Giorgio was wrong.First, the girl's head covers the mourning widow's veil, and Giocondo Francesco lived a long life.Second, why not give a portrait of Leonardo customer?
known that the artist did not leave with a portrait before his death, although he was offered big money in those days.In 1925, critics have suggested that the portrait belongs to the mistress of Giuliano de 'Medici - the widow Constanza d'Avalos.Later Carlo Pedretti proposed another option: it can be Pachifika bandanas, another mistress Pedretti.She was the widow of a Spanish nobleman, he was well educated, had a cheerful disposition and graced with his presence any company.
Who is the real Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci?Opinions differ.Perhaps this is the Mona Lisa Gherardini, perhaps, Isabella Gualando, Philibert of Savoy or Pachifika Brandao ... How do I know?
from the king to the king from the kingdom to the kingdom
most serious collectors were kings of the XVI century, it is the attention needed to win the product to break out of the narrow circle of respect for the artists.The first place was seen portrait of the Mona Lisa, was a bath of King Francis I. The monarch to put a picture not because of lack of respect and ignorance of how he got a brilliant creation, on the contrary, the most important place of the French kingdom was just room in Fontainebleau.There the king rested, entertained with their mistresses, received ambassadors.
After Fontainebleau painting "Mona Lisa" by Leonardo da Vinci visited the walls of the Louvre, Versailles, the Tuileries, two centuries, she traveled from the palace to the palace.Gioconda greatly darkened because of the multiple is not entirely successful restorations disappeared her eyebrows and two columns behind.If words could describe all that I saw the Mona Lisa behind the walls of the French palaces, the works of Alexander Dumas would seem dry and boring textbooks.
About "La Gioconda" Remember?
In the XVIII century, the tide has turned on the legendary picture."Mona Lisa" by Leonardo da Vinci simply did not fit the parameters of the beauties of classicism and shepherdesses frivolous Rococo.At first, she was transferred to the rooms of ministers, it gradually sank lower and lower on the hierarchy of the court as long as it was in one of the darkest corners of Versailles, where she could see only the cleaners but petty bureaucrats.The painting was not included in a collection of the best paintings of the French king, presented to the public in 1750.
French Revolution changed the situation.The picture, along with other confiscated from the collection of the King for the first museum in the Louvre.It turned out that, unlike kings, artists never for a moment did not disappoint in the works of Leonardo.Fragonard, member of the Convention, was able to adequately evaluate the picture and include it in the list of the most valuable pieces of the museum.After that, the picture could admire not only the kings and courtiers, but also everyone in the best museum in the world.
These different interpretations of Mona Lisa's smile
As you know, smiling can be different: seductive, bitingly sad, embarrassed, or happy.But none of these definitions is not appropriate.One of the "experts' claims that the person depicted in the picture was pregnant, and smiles in an attempt to capture the movement of the fetus.Another says that she smiles Leonardo, her lover.
In one famous version states that the "Mona Lisa" ("Mona Lisa") - a self-portrait of Leonardo.Recently, with the help of the computer compared the anatomical features of the Mona Lisa and the people of da Vinci self-portrait painted in red pencil.It turned out that they are a perfect match.It turns out that the Mona Lisa - a female Person of genius, and her smile - a smile of Leonardo himself.
Why the Mona Lisa's smile fades, then reappears?
When we look at a portrait of the Mona Lisa, it seems that her smile is not constant: it dies, then reappears.Why is this happening?The fact that there is a central vision is focused on the details, and the peripheral is not so distinct.Thus, it is necessary to focus your eyes on the lips of Mona Lisa - the smile disappears when you look into the eyes or trying to cover the entire face - she smiles.
Today "Mona Lisa" by Leonardo da Vinci in the Louvre.For almost perfect system of protection it had to pay about $ 7 million.It includes bulletproof glass, the latest alarm system and a specially designed program that supports the necessary microclimate inside.At the moment, the cost of insurance picture is 3 billion.