Even those inexperienced in the art are aware of how to look like still lifes.This painting, which depicts a composition of any household items or colors.However, not everyone knows how to translate this word - still life.Now we will tell you about this and much more, which is associated with the genre.
origin of the word "still life"
So, it's an expression of nature morte in Russian, of course, French.As you can see, it is divided into two parts - "nature" and "morte", respectively, which translates as "nature, nature, life" and "a dead, silent, motionless."Now we add up the two parts together and get all the familiar word "still life."
Based on the above, we can conclude that the still life - a genre easel painting, the image of the artist on the canvas stiff, immobile nature.However, sometimes the master of still life paintings complement his image quite living creatures - butterflies, caterpillars, spiders and beetles, and even birds.But the exception only confirms the fundamental rights.
history of still life has for nearly 600 years.Prior to the XVI century.anyone and had no idea that one can draw paints some inanimate objects, even very beautiful.Still-life painting simply did not exist in those days.In the Middle Ages painting was entirely devoted to God, the Church and man.Artists painted pictures on religious subjects, were held in high esteem portraits.Even the landscape acted only as a supplement.
Still, some elements of still life occurred in the 15th century, the Dutch painters.In their paintings with traditional religious or mythological content, as well as the portraits are images carefully drawn flower garlands, books, dishes, and even human skulls.It will take a couple of centuries, and the whole world will admire the works of the so-called small Dutch - masters of still life painting.
However, its release as an independent genre of fine art still life shall not Dutch, and French.French artists such as Francois Desportes, Jean-Baptiste Chardin, Jean-Baptiste Monnuaye and Jean-Baptiste Oudry formulated the basic principles of the "subject" of painting, formed its basic concept and showed to the public the beauty and charm of the still life.
Epoch small Dutch - flowering of still life painting
So, let's rewind a few centuries ago in order to understand who the small Dutch and why, when it comes to classical still life, always remember it is their.First Dutch still life - a creation of artists who lived in the Netherlands in the 17th century.Small Dutch - so called school of painting and the community of artists to create paintings directional household small size.Of course, they wrote, not only still lifes.
Among them were many landscape painters and masters of genre painting.Their paintings were intended not for palaces and churches, and to decorate the home for the ordinary citizens.While in a small Dutch were about 3 thousand artists, and they differed enormous capacity for work and the ability to endure well to the canvas the beauty of the everyday world.Vposledstii critics call it the Dutch Renaissance.That's when the genre of the still life is widespread.
Best Dutch still lifes
on the beautiful Dutch still lifes, like in the window, laid before the audience a variety of kitchen utensils, fruit, luxury flowers, household items.Very popular were floral still lifes.This was partly due to the fact that in the Netherlands for centuries there was a cult of flowers and gardening.One of the most prominent representatives of the Dutch still life paintings of the 17th century.It is an artist Jan Davids de Heem and his son Cornelis de Heem.
Their pictorial creations have gained popularity and fame is largely due to the fact that they were able to masterfully depict flowers and fruit.Meticulous attention to detail, coupled with sophisticated colors and perfectly constructed composition made them incomparable paintings.These artists painted luxurious flower bouquets, standing in beautiful vases, next to which butterflies;garlands of fruit;transparent glasses filled with wine;dish with grapes and other fruit;musical instruments, and so on. d. The famous still-life father and son are striking in their realism, fine transmission of light and exquisite flavor.
Still life painting impressionist
pay more attention to the genre of the still life and the French Impressionists, as well as postrimpressionisty.Naturally, their manner of writing differed sharply from a realistic small Dutch delicacy, because the classic Impressionist painting did not appeal.Claude Monet, Edouard Manet, Edgar Degas, Paul Cezanne, Van Gogh - all these artists loved to write flowers and plants, because they both are part of nature, the beauty of which they sang all his life.
Auguste Renoir wrote of his life a gallery of fine air of still lifes.Sometimes the image "frozen nature" requires the Impressionists only as a supplement.For example, in "The Luncheon on the Grass" by Edouard Manet in the foreground you can see a magnificent still life of scattered clothes scattered on the grass fruits and eatables.Van Gogh wrote many unusual still lifes.Many know of his painting "Sunflowers" or "Irises", but he still has such canvases as "Shoes Van Gogh" or "Van Gogh's Chair" - all this as samples of still life painting.
Russian still life
surprising that Russia still life as a genre has not been claimed for a long time, because I think almost the lowest of all types of fine art, which does not require any basic knowledge or special skillspainting.Only in the second half of XIX century.Russian itinerants could cause the Russian public interest in this genre of art.
Subsequently, still life painting fond of many Russian artists.Still life of famous artists such as Igor Grabar, Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin, Ivan Khrutsky, Konstantin Korovin can be seen in the halls of the Tretyakov Gallery, the Russian Museum, the Museum of Fine Arts.Pushkin in Moscow and the Hermitage.But the real heyday of still life painting occurred in our country in the era of socialism.
With the advent of photography in the art world there was still such a genre as a photo still life.Today, many people are addicted to creating photographic masterpieces.Some images are striking by their perfection and skill of the photographer.Sometimes, with the help of talented artists to manage the camera to shoot still lifes, which does not yield the most famous creations of the Little Dutch.
How to draw a still life
order to start drawing a still life, you must first create it from some subjects.For the first experiments in still life painting is better not to do complex compositions, two or three objects would be sufficient.
Next draw still life stages.First you need to make a drawing pencil or charcoal.Then follows the underpainting light, revealing the basic colors and shadows composition, and only then you can start plotting to detail.