Guy de Maupassant, "Necklace": summary, analysis, criticism, essay

this novel in the late XIX century, wrote a connoisseur of human souls by Guy de Maupassant."Necklace" - a tragic and philosophical essay.Its main heroine Mathilde Loisel force of circumstances becomes a victim of his pride.

main character

She hails from bureaucratic families.Her husband is in the ministry.Matilda different fine art female beauty.She has a girlfriend - an aristocrat.In childhood they learned with Ms. Forestier in the monastery.As the Bride, she had no chance to profitable marriage to be in a higher caste.

A bureaucratic way of life, do not assume frills seemed she hated.

about how the heroine dreamed of riches, says Guy de Maupassant ("Necklace").Summary of the novel have to illuminate her dreams of a luxurious French Rococo.

Depressive dreams Matilda

She dreamed of aristocracy: a huge bright living room, decorated with exotic oriental fabrics, carved tables, consoles, precious silver, amber, pearl baubles, shimmering crystal chandeliers, porcelain figurines, an exquisite rec

eptions dishes of ancientembroidered tapestries adorn the walls.She imagined herself a secular dinner with famous and influential people leading casual conversation while eating grouse wing or pink trout.

Urgency philosophical problem posed by the author

The fact that she was fixated on all that in our time is called one capacious and exact word "polish" with pain and bitterness tells Guy de Maupassant ("Necklace").Summary of the novel so despite half centuries of the work itself, it is just the same sverhaktualnym today.Elegant, graceful girl had no jewelry or expensive clothes, no family benefits.At the same time it wants to be seductive socialite.

After Mathilde Loisel, if compared with the artist, the brush of his mind turns black all the world in which she lived: walls covered with worn wallpaper prosizhennye chairs, one round table, covered with a faded cloth, vulgar permanent menu.

Good patient husband beauties

husband, Mr. Loiselle, unlike his wife, does not suffer from similar delusions of aristocracy.He was grateful to God for the beauty of the couple, for the work of the cabbage soup she cooked it.

sad for Matilda way allowed her inner conflict, tells us Maupassant ("Necklace").Summary of the novel contains a culmination of the action.

Fatal invitation

Male beauty, wanting to please her, brings home the invitation card from his boss, the Minister of Education George Rampone on the ball for the secular officials, organized in the Catholic feast of the Heart of Jesus (January 18).He believes that the opportunity to join the secular embolden Matilda.Instead, his wife cried bitterly of what she did nothing to put on it, but there was nothing about jewelry and reasoning.She advised her husband to give them a ticket officer, "whose wife wears better."

on the ball!

description of the present cycle of the male gave his Maupassant short story ("Necklace").Summary of the further development of the plot is predictable.Mr. Loiselle asked the wife how much can cost a decent but inexpensive dress.The answer was immediate: "400 francs."Spouse shuddered: as much as the time he had postponed the purchase of a gun.Mr. Loisel wanted, bought him ride on Sunday with his friends hunting.However, as a loving husband and a man-hearted, he decided to give them to buy Matilda liked her dress.

touching and exciting is the thread of the narrative novel by Guy de Maupassant."Necklace" (summary) accommodates episode buying dresses for the ball.It was to face Mathilde.Belle was glad at first, but not for long.After all, ladies will present in gold and pearls!Soon again sadness clouded her face.After all, the girl did not have any valuables.A dress with fresh flowers to decorate it seemed shameful.But Mr. Loisel and this time blew away her sadness.He reminded her of her friend, aristocrat Madame Forestier, hinting that the jewels spouse can borrow it.

Tip load.Indeed, should the wife officials asked his friend how she not only agreed, but also offered the choice of your jewelry.Ms. Loiselle like a diamond necklace, stored in a black velvet pouch.

Yet some optimism in the presentation of the novel puts "Necklace" Maupassant.Summary of follow-up, finally reveals warming in relations of spouses.Beauty Matilda expects a ball, like a man on the train waits for the light at the end of the tunnel.She wants to believe that fate finally gave her his smile.

Queen of the Ball

Indeed, the day of the ball was a real triumph for Mrs. Loisel.It stands out for its beauty among the women present.The men vied asked her waltz.Officials are asking each other who this aristocrat?She has received special attention, even the minister himself.

She danced with delight, like being wrapped in a cloud of happiness, savoring his apparent victory in attracting female attention.She was in an atmosphere of fun and ball to four o'clock in the morning.Her husband at that time, even managed to take a nap in the next room.However, only one this joyful and bright scene is displayed in his novel "Necklace" Maupassant.Composing it very quickly, after a fleeting Mozart's sparkling colors, acquired traits merciless drama.

stolen necklace.Finding

last wife, barely beating several quarters, we found a cab.When they finally returned home on the street Martir, Matilda found the necklace Madame Forestier disappeared.After searching all the folds of clothing, pockets, poor girl I did not find anything.My husband at the time was a lantern in the opposite direction following the path from the ball and returned at seven o'clock in the morning with nothing.

All he could do for the husband wanted jewels: an advertisement in the newspaper, said the prefecture of police.With sympathy he wrote about this unfortunate man Maupassant.Necklace as the family council decided to spouses, should in no matter what was to give Mrs. Forestier.To gain time, it reported minor damage to borrowed things - allegedly broken lock.

couple Loisel in debt bondage

on abandoned before the ball home case, on the plate was engraved the name of the jeweler.Wife went to him to determine the cost of loss.They managed to find in one of the jewelry stores is the same necklace worth 40 thousand. Francs.We were able to knock down price - to 36 thousand.In addition, Mr. Loiselle agreed with the owner of the store, which will hand back the purchase of 34 thousand. Francs if there is a missing piece of jewelery.

of debt bondage family unhappy officer wrote in his short story by Guy de Maupassant ("Necklace").Criticism of the works marks his style as social realism.Mr. Loisel enslaved itself seemed to end his days.He was 18 thousand francs, inherited from his father as a legacy.The remainder had to borrow from moneylenders.And so I had to borrow a significant amount of parts: 500 and 1,000 francs, leaving IOUs to many people.About

creative method of Guy de Maupassant

dream about the crash of a young woman I wrote a short story by Guy de Maupassant - "Necklace".Analysis of the creative method of the author, conducted literature, defined it as bezotsenochnoe realism.Described in detail the events in their history, and the reader himself evaluates them.This writer, his style differed strongly with total naturalism of Emile Zola.Indeed, psychology books by Guy de Maupassant is present, as it were in the second day of the narrative.

directly on the mind of the reader leaves only consistently and spectacularly illustrated facts Guy de Maupassant ("Necklace").Analysis creativity Maupassant shows that it is structurally different from, say, Balzac creative writing novels.Unlike his colleagues, the author of "necklace" to create more concise and brief essays, short stories, filling each of them realistic and nenadumannym factual material, familiar to many of the French real life.The artistic heritage of Maupassant has more than 300 short stories and novels, only 6.

Disasters spouses

Predugadyvaemo outlines further the plot the novel "Necklace" de Maupassant.Analysis return necklaces scene reveals a different mental state of her friends.Matilda feared that Mme Forestier does not recognize the jewel.The same did not even look at him, only vaguely chided her friend for such a late return.

official for family fell on black days.They lived the life of the poor, to pay the debts and the ruinous interest whole host of usurers.The couple changed their cozy apartment in the tiny attic, fired the maid.Gen. Ms. Loiselle has changed radically.She began to dress in the clothes of the poor.Vela entire household: the purchase of products on the market, washing, cleaning - all fell on her shoulders.She wore a heavy daily buckets of water from the well, broke his nails when washing, war with the shopkeepers for each su.

Now free time the couple almost left.With merciless realism shows in the novel by Guy de Maupassant ("Necklace"), debt bondage, which hit the family official.Caring wife began monthly payments on one bills extension others.To repay the third had reborrow funds.At that time, her husband worked for wear.Often it took overtime, did not sleep at night.Mr. Loisel kept accounting for businessmen, copying text on page 5 sous.

Ten years of this life a heavy burden fell on the shoulders of spouses.Once an elegant woman lost her looks.She went without hair, not watching their appearance, in untidy skirts.Even changed her figure: heard shoulders, waist disappeared.Once gentle hands were rough, unkempt.Now the woman did not even think of high society, the aristocratic circle.To learn how to influence an easy life on the poorer women of the common people, unvarnished says Maupassant.Necklace changed not for the better, not only a way of life of the spouses, but also to themselves.

Sometimes when the husband went to the office, Mrs. Loiselle, sitting at the window, recalled his only ball.She thought about the variability of human life and the capriciousness of fate that could destroy dreams and ruin a man.

However, to their credit should recognize that they have overcome adversity with courage for ten years, impoverished hopelessness paid not only to the amount of debt, but also all the onerous interest vampires-usurers.

unexpected meeting

Quite unexpectedly ends his short story by Guy de Maupassant."Necklace" because it is such a plot twist, turns from a talented biographies adversity spouses in high classics.The author's style sounds with all the power, causing a storm of emotions among readers.And with all of this looks even narrative does not change the rhythm of presentation!It was at this property, and is the highlight of creativity Maupassant, his brilliant talent, beloved by millions of readers.

characteristic that everything happens as if by accident.After a terrible decade, exhausted work over the past week, Ms. Loiselle Sunday afternoon went for a walk along the Champs Elysees.Unexpectedly there that she met Jeanne Forestier, strolling with children.

That aristocrat due podurnevshey appearance did not even recognize it, says Guy de Maupassant."Necklace" at the same time tells us that she Mme Forestier remained pretty graceful lady.She was struck by a fatal change that occurred with the once shining beauty of her friend, exclaiming: "How you have changed!ยป

Unhappy Ms. Loiselle complained to her grief, fell on her fate due to loss of necklaces.She told of the years of poverty and misery, that she and her husband are now paid a terrible bonded debt.Hearing this pinching story aristocrat stunned, exclaiming: "Poor Matilda!" And then, grasping her hands in excitement, he told her that she borrowed the necklace was a fake, and its real price did not exceed five hundred dollars.

this replica completes the novel by Guy de Maupassant ("Necklace").Indeed, it is worth it to continue?What can you tell us about poor Madame Loisel yet?After all, she had spent to fight a phantom created by she herself, his best years.Not only did she lose the ability to take place as a society lady, but also deprived itself for many years to the simple joys of a carefree life in Paris.

course, this news is able to break the deadly man.Guy de Maupassant story deliberately develops further.We do not know whether it was possible to meet Matilda with mental strength and just move on, do not put it on hand.

Conclusion

uniqueness creativity Guy de Maupassant appears in the short story "Necklace".Soulful story in detail and impartially describes the life story of the main characters ... but the feelings and emotions of readers simply did boil thanks to the skill classic.

can recommend this novel to reading as a starting for the people who are not familiar with the work of the great Frenchman.For those who enjoy the skill and depth of the images of human destinies and characters in the laconic description, Guy de Maupassant could well become one of my favorite writers.