Epigram - it is a separate genre of lyrical miniatures - poem that ridiculed any person or social phenomenon.The term is derived from the Greek word epigramma, which literally means "sign".
inscription arbitrary detention
epigram originated in ancient Greece and was originally an inscription to any content on the cup, vessel, or the portico of the temple elevated pedestal of the statue.In ancient Rome, the value of poetic writing has changed, for the Romans the epigram - a satirical poem.In ancient Greek epigram poetry originated in the 7-6 century BC.
first classic of the genre is Simonides Keossky.This author is credited with a lot of ancient epigrams about the warriors of Greece and Persia.In the first century BC, it was first created an anthology of Greek epigrams, which included about 4,000 works, sorted by category.In the Middle Ages in Latin literature epigrams with ancient traditions continued its development - the inscriptions on the tombs, church objects and various buildings.Also verse
in European literature
Epigram in European literature is a small form of satire, of the distinctive features that can clearly identify specific reason.The first people began to write epigrams in Europe, have become French writers - Racine, Voltaire, La Fontaine, Rousseau.Somewhat later, this form of spread to other genres of European literature.
in Russian literature epigram clearly manifested in the works of poets of the 18th century: Bogdanovich, Lomonosov Kheraskov, Cantemir and others. But the highest degree of development it reaches in the works Dmitriev, Pushkin, Vyazemsky.During this period, the epigram - a comment on individual political events, literary masterpieces, famous personalities and public figures.For the most part they have not been published, but remained in the manuscripts authors.Among the most prominent authors epigrammatistov the early 19th century - PA Vyazemsky, Pushkin, EA Baratynsky, SA Sobolewski.Epigrams Pushkin differed fine satire, for example, written in FV Bulgarin, AA Arakcheev and AN Golitsyn.Although some of its creation in the genre of carefully kept ancient Greek tradition ("Curious", "Movement").
In the mid-19th century epigram (verses of the traditional type) recedes into the background, but the rise is going through a topical satirical poetry.Particularly striking examples of it managed to create a VS Kurochkin, DD Minaev, ML Mikhailov, NA Nekrasov.Later epigram written by many other eminent writers: AA Fet, Tyutchev, AN Apukhtin in this genre, trying to prove the so-called minor poets, there are few examples of epigrams written prose writers - NSLeskov, Dostoevsky.In Soviet literature to the epigram often asked Marshak, V. Mayakovsky, A. Arkhangelsk, Demian poor, and many others.
From Antiquity to the Present
Contemporary writers and poets also paid tribute tribute epigram, which continues to spread among the masses not only in printed form, but also orally.One of the most famous contemporary epigrammatistov considered outstanding actor Valentin Gaft.He is the author of an infinite set of poetic cartoons directed at their fellow actors.Gaft caustic epigrams are poetic attacks against domestic actors, movies and even politicians.Actor very many "izmetelil," as the author himself says, "eaten alive."The objects of his attacks were: Leah Akhedzhakova, Galina Volchek, Oleg Dal, Armen Dzhigarkhanyan Vasily Lanovoi, Oleg Tabakov.After the release of the movie rental "Three Men in a Boat" Gaft composed epigram Alexander Shirvindt, Andrei Mironov and Mikhail Derzhavin.Many openly resent Gaft epigram, among them the family of Sergei Mikhalkov.The object of satire gaftovskoy was the painting "The Three Musketeers" and Vladimir Zhirinovsky.
Epigram - is one of the rarest, most unique genre that originated in deep antiquity, was not lost for centuries, has survived to the present day and still very popular, especially in satire and parody.