Bylichki - a kind of modifier reliability

bylichki - a genre of folklore.It is small in size, but very emotional story about the meeting itself took place with the inhabitants of the underworld, or the feel of their invisible presence, and all sorts of human exposure.The main function of this genre is considered proof or confirmation of a belief.


Eastern Slavs believed that the pagan gods were an integral part of their everyday life and everyday life.In the field and at home, in the river and in the woods, in the bath, in the barn, they were accompanied by the existence of man.They were with him from birth to the moment of the burial and then meet him in the afterlife, the afterlife.All the innumerable representatives of evil forces: brownies and Bannikov, goblins and water, frights and mermaid - have been an integral part of people's life and the traditional culture of pagan Russia, so these images are passed to Russian folklore, including the true stories and legends.An important component for the development of the genre was t

he cult of nature, which had a weighty importance in the development of cultural, social and political system of Russia.Habitat representatives of demonology were lower forest, water, swamp, cemetery, field, mill, house and room, and the time of their increased activity - the dark (twilight, night).This is a typical time-space most true stories.

Development genre

Bylichki byvalschiny and became the objects of attention of scientists at the beginning of the XIX century.During this period it was recorded a huge number of texts that are not published in separate collections, together with the texts of fairy tales, epics, etc.At this time, there was a tendency to name true stories "byvalschinkoy", "byvalschiny."Many folklorists began to use the term as a synonym to the concepts of "Legend", "tradition", "byvalschiny."But true stories - is distinctive and unique area of ​​folklore, which is due to the specifics of the genre (the use of traditional motifs, characters associated with the supernatural and reliance on personal experience narrating) is moving closer to byvalschiny, tales, legends.


bylichki has significant differences from the legends and the general trends with byvalschiny because it does not appeal to the traditions, and tells the story of the modern period of life that occurred, or directly with the narrator, or his relatives, acquaintancesfriends or acquaintances (which is marked much more often).Thus, the hallmark of the genre should consider the installation of the reality of the described incident.Often the narrative repeatedly describes the events that quite possibly could happen to the audience.Bylichki - this is not an explanation of certain realities, but rather a simple warning or idle story about the incident encounter with the supernatural.

Basis The basis of true stories can be put actual cases have occurred that are interpreted in the light of prevailing beliefs and mythological ideas.These should also include a story that a mother deliberately scare children - of evil spirits, kidnapping children, ghosts, ogres, etc.In today's world bylichki - rather, it is a horror story.

classification and function

Bylichki classified according to their contents.Sections of the main characters stand out - mythological characters.For example, bylichki can narrate:

  • the spirits of nature: Leshem, field workers, poludnica, water, mermaids;
  • on domestic spirits: houses ovinnik, Bannikov, bean;
  • the serpent, hell, or the curse.

presented demonic mythological creatures brought to the surface the hidden fears and desires of the layman, with their emergence mythologized view of the world and man himself.

More bylichki called progenitors magical tales.Himself EMMeletinsky called them "the ancestor of a fairy tale."Sometimes some genre scenes are taken as the basis for the work of art: an example is "Wii" NVGogol.Or mystical tradition included in the structure of the text, as did the SITurgenev story "Bezhin meadow."Bylichki as any folklore, Christian and pre-Christian connect.Pagan superstitious ideas of ancient Slavs reflect the characters and their actions, and the system of wards in most cases Christian.Faith, cross, sign of the cross, prayer, holy water, church candle chimes - all this, in the firm belief of ancestors, drives away evil spirits.