First you need to define the comic.This is a special tool that allows you to uncover, eliminate contradictions in life, the usual laughter.Humor in the literature is the discrepancy may notice solely on the verbal level, the plot moves (when the hero, for example, falls into any funny situation) or nature (inadequate self-esteem of the character himself illogically).
course, laughter laughter strife.Satire and humor in literature - two different concepts.If the first involves kindness laugh at the characters of the novel or short story, the second prefers tough characters and denounce evil deeds.And it is quite far from funny stories Shukshin early Chekhov - as well as from pamphlets Swift - the grotesque with phantasmagoric unjoinable plexus.This kind of laughter has not cheerful.
Humor in literature - is ...
This kind of comic is considered the most versatile.In contrast, he is kind of satire, bezzloben, though not devoid of a certain severity.Its main goal - to help the character get rid of
key feature of humor - when kindly laugh at someone, you do not notice how you begin to pay attention to their shortcomings, try to correct them.Using this version allows you to find the comic in a mad wise, insignificant - the sublime, and reveals the true nature of the wayward.Without humor can not live any normal person, even it is a kind of grim place.As stated by one Remarque, we laugh and joke at all because endowed with a sense of humor.And because without it we are lost.
work, embodying elements of humor, a lot of Russian literature.This is the story of Gogol, and to what extent the play Ostrovsky, Chekhov.Soviet literature has given us Zoshchenko, Bulgakov, Shukshin, and many others.In addition, there is humor in children's literature (the famous "Adventures of Tom Sawyer").
Irony Irony distinguishes a special welcome when, in fact, the negative sense of the statement lies behind the outer positive side.This already becomes bitter laughter color.Compare the above examples of humor in literature and the use of irony in some of the poems of Nekrasov.For example, in "KALISTRATOV" comic effect is based on the opposition promises mother that her child will live happily, and the reality of the peasant's son in that society.
In order to grasp the irony, you must always consider the context.For example, Chichikov in "Dead Souls," the police chief calls a well-read man.It seems that in this statement there is nothing to allow doubt his fallibility.However, later the narrator continues: "We have it (that is, the chief of police) all night lost at whist."The irony, as well as humor in literature - a rapprochement between the two plans, conventionally referred to as a given and granted.However, in the case of "Dead Souls" is the degree to discredit the above object of ridicule.At the same time this division carried out in theory, can not always be guided in practice.
If humor in literature - is the usual ridicule of the individual, the satire is aimed at aspects of social life that deserve criticism.Woo latter usually due okarikaturivaniya, literally, a ridiculous image.To put it figuratively, the satire executes this imperfect world, is doing everything to rebuild it with his ideal program.It does not seek to convey a lifelike character, he sharpens, exaggerates it brings to the absurd.
striking example of satire - "The Master and Margarita" by Bulgakov.Special deserved ridicule "Griboyedov House", which from the literature nothing is left, and all the doors in a "cultural" institution hung signs "fish and summer residence section."
Specificity satire explains why most of it is embodied in a novel form.It allows the novel to cover as many areas of reality.This satire is always timely.Of course, if satirist begin to expose non-critical (or even nonexistent) faults, that he risks becoming a laughing stock.
With sarcasm Greek and translated - "torment."This kind of comic irony is close, but anger is manifested more openly, more clearly rebuke.For example, in "Duma," the poet says sarcastically that his contemporaries are rich cradle "mistakes of their fathers and later their mind."Sarcasm is widely used in pamphlets and other similar genres.
Rafael In the 15th century with the students during archaeological excavations discovered whimsical drawings that became known as the grotesque (from the word "grotto").Its specificity is that the comic effect is based on the combination of the real and the fantastic, even absurd.Suffice it to recall the missing nose of Major Kovalev Gogol mayor or a stuffed head in the novel Saltykov-Shchedrin.