In May 1842 published in print the first volume of Gogol's "Dead Souls".The work was conceived by the author during his work on the "Inspector".In "Dead Souls" by Gogol refers to the main theme of his work: the ruling classes of Russian society.The writer himself said: "Many great and my creation, and not the end of it soon."Indeed, "Dead Souls" - a remarkable phenomenon in the history of Russian and world satire.
"Dead Souls" - a satire on serfdom
«Dead Souls" - a work of critical realism.This is the successor of Gogol, Pushkin's prose.He speaks about it in the pages of the poem in the digression of two types of writers (VII chapter).It offers a feature of Gogol's realism: the ability to expose and to show close up all the flaws of human nature, which are not always apparent.In "Dead Souls" reflected the basic principles of realism:
- Historicism.The piece is written about the contemporary writer time - line 20-30 years of XIX century - then serfdom experienced a serious crisis.
- typical character and circumstances.The landlords and bureaucrats depicted satirically with a strong critical focus, shows the main social types.Particular attention is paid Gogol details.
- satirical typing.She achieved the author's characteristic characters, comic situations, reference to past heroes, exaggeration, using speech comparative revolutions and proverbs.
meaning of the name: the literal and metaphorical
Gogol was planning to write a work of three volumes.The basis he took a "Divine Comedy" by Dante Alighieri.Similarly, "Dead Souls" had to consist of three parts.Even the title of the poem refers the reader to Christian principles.
Why "Dead Souls"?The name itself - an oxymoron, comparing comparable.Soul - is substance, which is inherent in the living, not the dead.Using this technique, Gogol gives us hope that all is not lost, that a positive start in mutilated souls landlords and bureaucrats can be reborn.This was supposed to be, and the second volume.
meaning of the name of the poem "Dead Souls" is in several planes.On the surface - the literal sense, because it is called dead souls of the dead farmers in bureaucratic documents.Actually, this is the essence of Chichikov fraud: buy dead serfs and take their pledge money.In the circumstances of the sale of the peasants and the basic characters."Dead Souls" - is the landowners themselves and officials faced Chichikov, because they do not have anything human, alive.They are ruled by greed (officials), blockhead (capsule), cruelty (nostril) and roughness (Sobakevich).
The deep meaning of the name
All new aspects are opened as you read the poem "Dead Souls".The meaning of the name, lurking in the depths of the work, makes us think about the fact that every person, a simple man in the street, may eventually turn into Manilow or Nozdryov.Suffice it in his heart to settle down a little passion.And he did not notice how there vzrastet vice.With this purpose in Chapter XI Gogol encourages readers to look deep into the soul and the check: "And if there is in me any part of Chichikov?»
Gogol laid in the poem "Dead Souls" meaning of the name multifaceted, offers readers notimmediately, but in the process of thinking about the work.
In the analysis of "Dead Souls" raises another question: "Why Gogol is positioning the product as a poem?"Indeed, the creation of a unique genre originality.While working on the product of Gogol letters shared with friends their creative discoveries, calling "Dead Souls" and the poem and novel.
On the title page of the first edition was written: "The Adventures of Chichikov, or Dead Souls" (in the first part of this censorship) - and then coarsely was isolated subtitle "Poem."The writer himself insisted that it was made out as "Dead Souls".The meaning of the name of the product is reduced to a poem that Gogol planned to continue the work, and in the second and third volumes show the revival of perverse characters.And then the "Dead Souls" of satire turn into a poem.
is not exhausted genre features works of "Dead Souls".The meaning of the title of his poem by Nikolai Vasilyevich explained in the manual of literature.There he calls the poem genre, intermediate between the epic and the novel.In the center of this genre is to be a hero - an ordinary man, through adventures that show the manners of contemporary era.The leading example of Gogol "Don Quixote" Cervantes.
In addition, the "Dead Souls" is another aspect through which the product is considered to be a poem - the numerous lyrical digressions, characteristic of the chanter of the genre.
In addition to these qualities, "Dead Souls" is closely border the picaresque novel, and even social.But to refer to the work of this genre is not necessary due to the lack of romance.
heroes and anti-heroes of the poem
In the first volume of "Dead Souls" ("Hell" by Dante) Gogol planned to show the evil - perverse bureaucracy and landlord class.It realized it was through the images.Heroes dead souls - those officials and landowners, which meets Chichikov performing his cunning machinations.
Images landowners presented with increasing spiritual decline and moral turpitude.In the description of each Gogol focuses on the fact that it is not a special case, and the type of people, "Manilow belongs to the people is so-so";Capsule - "One of those matushkas";"People like Nozdryov, everyone had to meet quite a few."Such people are born morally impoverished social environment.The poem sentenced both landlords and the whole feudal system as a whole.
Another negative image of the poem "Dead Souls" - the bureaucracy.In the city of devastation and chaos reigns.Bureaucracy - a place where you can make profitable.The process of obtaining bribes put on stream.Remember the episode when Chichikov bribes Ivan Antonovich.Actions officials brought to automatism: see the bill - cover with a piece of paper - to pretend that everything is all right.
negative characters form the meaning of the title of the poem - "Dead Souls".However, according to Gogol, it is not all bad: two of the heroes he has a chance to improve.The process of resurrection from the dead is associated with the category of movement.Two characters in the poem are shown in the process of development has been given and Elijah Chichikov biography.Gogol This suggests that they are able to change in the future.
no doubt a positive hero in the poem - is the author, is revealed through the lyrical digressions.He understands and loves Russia sees huge potential in the Russian people.In addition, Gogol stresses the positive qualities of the Russian people: a juicy tongue, diligence, honesty, originality and inventiveness.That is what will allow Russia to change and become a fabulous bird-troika.
On the second volume of "Dead Souls"
in a state of profound creative crisis for ten years, Gogol wrote the second volume of "Dead Souls".In his correspondence, he often complains to friends that it is very tight and it is not particularly satisfying.
Gogol refers to the harmonious, positive image of the landowner Kostanzhoglo: prudence, responsibility, use scientific knowledge in a device of the estate.Under its influence Chichikov reconsidering its relationship to reality and change for the better.
seeing in the poem "vital lie", Gogol burned the second volume of "Dead Souls".