Before describing specific definitions (supposedly amphibrach - it ... and so on. D.), It should be clear what is the verse.Typically, under him understand the principles of poetic speech into one rhythmic unit.Literary share metric and accent system, the first provided by the ancient works, Russian folk poetry, is more ancient.Accent verse is divided, in turn, to the tonic, syllabic and syllabic-tonic system.
treatment therefor one of them dictated by the peculiarities of its language.For syllabic versification important is the number of syllables for tonic - accents.That is why syllabic versification common in national literatures that use the language of fixed accent.These include the Polish, French.Russian and Ukrainian literature, also known examples of syllabic versification, but it is, by virtue of obvious reasons is not stuck.For syllabic-tonic versification (namely, it is most characteristic of Russian poetry) is an important number of stressed and unstressed syllables;their alternation schem
As testified Gasparov, the share of this poetic size accounts for about half of all the poetic texts of the second half of the XIX century.The iambic foot (a combination of stressed and unstressed components) consists of two syllables.First unstressed, the second is under the stress (for example: "Again I stand on the Neva ...").The Russian classicism special distribution was 6-stop pentameter.It is used mainly in the so-called high genres - odes and epistles.Subsequently, 6-stop, as well as free pentameter amphibrach and other ternary meters completely replace.
In this case, the stressed syllable is the first two-syllable foot (for example - the familiar lines of children's poetry "My cheerful ringing the ball").Very often in the poetry of the past and the past century found 5-stop ferrets.
proceed to the ternary meters.These include, as already mentioned, dactyl, amphibrach, anapaest.First the size of the list begins stressed syllable, and the other two remain unselected.Example dactyl - a line of poetry Lermontov: "Tuchkov heavenly, eternal wanderers ...»
Amphibrachiy - it ...
stressed syllable can not be in the beginning and in the middle trisyllabic foot.Such rhythmic organization line clearly says that before us amphibrach.This he wrote the famous "stop a galloping horse ...", which is almost all of the official anthem of the Russian women.
Finally, stress may fall on the last syllable of the third, then we are dealing with anapaest.It is clearly evident, for example, in the lines: "There were a river of clear ..." anapaest, amphibrach dactyl and is particularly prevalent in the poetic texts of the last century.As pointed Gasparov, they were originally 4-stop, but then they replaced the variant with three stops.
If you need according to the task to specify the size of the poetic, do not hold at random to determine amphibrach it or maybe ferrets.Or even Russian folk verse.For starters we recommend to read the text aloud, not really paying attention to the meaning of written, but simply enunciating each phrase.As if chattering.Then write down the line, mark the percussion sections, draw a diagram of poetry - and the job is done.
However, not all so simple.The poem may be present stack consisting completely of drum (spondee) or unstressed (pyrrhic) syllables.Originally called the term applied to the ancient poetry.With regard to the same syllabic-tonic system, they simply represent a pass (or presence) of stress where it should not be.In addition, the text can be written dol'nik.This means that it has a rhythmic organization, but the intervals between the different syllables are impermanent.A striking example - Block line: "She sang in the choir ...»
The poetry of the twentieth century was also used a form of verse accent (already mentioned Blok, Mayakovsky).It is characterized by an equal number of stressed syllables and unstressed has a different number of components.That is essentially accentual verse embodies the tonic system of versification in modern literature.There are also more exotic cases - a combination of shock and three unstressed syllables (so beckoning peon).He wrote the famous line: "Do not think of seconds down ..." It is also necessary to remember the poetic experiments of the Futurists, which run counter to any theoretical concepts.
Finally, the poem can be all white.This means that it does not rhyme, but the rhythmic organization is still present.So anapaest white or white pentameter exist in nature.