Who wrote "The Master and Margarita"?

Despite the fact that the novel was written a long time and is a classic, and he still enjoys great popularity among the younger generation.Thanks to the school curriculum almost all know the novel, and the one who wrote it."The Master and Margarita" - a novel created by the greatest writer Mikhail Bulgakov.

partial to the novel

indifferent people in relation to this work are almost nonexistent.In fact, readers are divided into two camps: those who love romance and admires them, and those who simply hates, and does not recognize the genius of Bulgakov.But there is a third, the smallest category.To it can be attributed, probably only young children.They are the ones who have not heard about the novel and did not know who the author is.

«The Master and Margarita" - is one of the most extraordinary and mysterious prose works.Many writers and literary scholars have tried to unravel the mystery of his popularity and success in the reader.By the end of it no one has yet succeeded.

Not many can remember and call these works, which would have generated so much controversy around it.About Bulgakov's novel, they do not cease to this day.They talk about the biblical component of the plot, the prototypes of the main characters, the philosophical and aesthetic roots of the novel, of who still is the main character, and even the genre in which it is written work.

three stages of writing a novel, by BV Sokolov

opinions about the literary history of writing "The Master and Margarita", as well as about the nature of the product are different.For example, Sokolov, author of "Bulgakov Encyclopedia" edition of the novel divides into three stages.He said that work on the product began in 1928.Presumably, that's when the author of the novel "The Master and Margarita" and conceived it, and started to write some chapters only in winter 1929.In the spring of that year, it was commissioned the first complete revision.But there were not directly told who the author who wrote it."Master and Margarita" even did not appear as the title of the work.The manuscript entitled "Furibunda" was given to the publisher "Nedra" under the pseudonym K. Tugay.A eighteenth March 1930 it was destroyed by the author.Thus ends the first stage of the editorial product, released Boris Vadimovich Sokolov.

The second stage started in autumn 1936.And while no one knew that the novel will be called as we are now accustomed.A different thought Bulgakov himself, the one who wrote it."Master and Margarita" - a work, receive different names from their author: "He appeared" and "he appeared", "Advent", "Grand Chancellor", "Here I am", "black magician," "hat with a feather""Hoof adviser" and "Horseshoe foreigner", "Black theologian," and even "Satan".It remained unchanged, only one subtitle - "A fantastic novel."

And finally, the third stage - the second half of 1936 until the end of 1938.First, a novel called "Prince of Darkness", but then still have found a familiar name for us.And in the early summer, in 1938, it was reprinted in full for the first time.

Everything that happened with the novel further Sokolov no longer considers the editorial offices, and calls the author's corrections.

nine editions, according to Losev

VI Losev more than twenty years studying the biography and work of Mikhail Bulgakov.He divides the history of the writing of the novel into nine parts, like the author himself.

  • First Edition - "black magician."It drafts of the novel, the first book written in 1928-1929.It has no Master and Margarita, and there are only four chapters.
  • second - "Hoof engineer."This is the second book of the same rough years.It's like a continuation of the second part of the first edition of the work.It has only three chapters, but then there has been the idea of ​​one of the most important parts of the novel - is a section called "The Gospel of Woland."
  • third - "Saturday Evening terrible."Drafts, sketches of the novel, written in the years 1929-1931.There are also three chapters.And until the final version of which reached only in case of Griboyedov.
  • fourth - "Grand Chancellor".The first complete manuscript revision.There are already appearing Margaret and her lover.That's just his name until Master and poet.
  • fifth - "Fantasy novel."This chapter rewritten and finish in the 1934-1936 years.There are new details, but there is a substantial modification.
  • sixth - "Golden Spear".It is broken at the head of "Magic Money" unfinished manuscript.
  • seventh - "Prince of Darkness."The first thirteen chapters of the novel.Love Stories The Master and Margarita is not here, and everything is cut off on the appearance of the main character.But Berlioz here Mirtsevym name.
  • Eighth part - "The Master and Margarita."Complete and mature manuscript revision 1928-1937 period.And this version was printed sister Elena Bulgakova Olga Bokshanskoy.
  • ninth - and "The Master and Margarita."The last and final version, which includes all the latest additions and comments Bulgakov.It was published after the death of the writer Elena Sergeevna, his wife, in 1966.

Option stories Belobrovtsevoy and Kulyus

In many ways their version is similar to that Losev, as they fully agree with the criticism of the first edition.However, a second version, they are called chapters of the novel "The hoof engineer" cast to the publisher "Nedra".It was here the first time there is the Master, whose name is still Fesey.He plays the role of Faust has no margaritas.The third version, according Belobrovtsevoy and Kulyus is "Fantasy novel" written by Bulgakov in 1932, which transformed from a Master in Fesi poet and already appears Margarita.Fourth, they believe the editors 1936, the one that was completed for the first time the word "end."Next is the product of 1937 - unfinished novel "Prince of Darkness."Then the manuscript, printed OS Bokshanskoy.Even its authors considered editing seventh edition.And the eighth and final - is that the rights of Bulgakov's wife before his death and was published after his death.

publish a novel in the form in which we know it is the first time in the magazine "Moscow" in 1966.The work immediately became popular, and the name of Bulgakov never left the lips of his contemporaries.Then, exactly, no one raises the question of who is the author of the work, who wrote."The Master and Margarita" - a novel that made a big impression.And he still maintains its reputation.