Creativity Pushkin in his last years extremely diverse: art and historical fiction, poetry on various subjects.Among his last works include the poem "I have erected a monument without hands."
Background "Monument" and the perception of contemporaries
little ambiguous theories about the history of the writing of the poem "I have erected a monument."
Pushkin wrote it in response to the poem "Two of Alexander", written in the years of his Lyceum friend Delwig.This backstory creation called a historian of literature, Pushkin scholar Vladislav Khodasevich Felitsianovich.
Other literary-Pushkinists recovered several theories involving the origins of writing the poem "I am a monument erected without hands."
Pushkin imitated pre-existing literary works G. Derzhavin, A. Vostokova, Lomonosov, V. Kapnist.
second theory dates back to ancient Rome and affects creative way Horace, Odes author Exegi monumentum.
poem was perceived ambiguously contemporaries and descendants.
belief in the imminent recognit
«I have erected a monument without hands" admirers of the author has been perceived as an anthem of poetry and hope for the triumph of the spiritual over the corporal.
«Monument" and the fate of the poet
Draft product was found in the pile of papers after the death of the poet.Vasily Zhukovsky helped poem appear in the posthumous collection of works by the playwright (1841).
Pushkin wrote, "I have erected a monument without hands" just five months before the fateful duel, which became the cause of his death: a poem dated August 21, 1836 The work was fatal prediction of impending death.
On New Year's ball Alexander personally read his "monument".
Pushkin poem conceptualized the fate of the poet in the prism of human history, wrote in severe for themselves the years: the critics up in arms against him, the royal censorship lyutovali and prohibited for printing most jobs, secular society discussed the rumors about him and his wife, and family life providedcrack.Perhaps it is this atmosphere influenced the deep opinion, will objectively assess personal creative contribution to the literature of the playwright.
Self-irony and epigram?
Individuals close to Alexander, the view was that the product is filled with notes of self-irony.They called "Monument" epigram, the object of which was Pushkin himself.
Confirmation of this theory is the focus of the poem: addressed to the poet, whose work is not respected among the tribesmen, though had to cause them admiration.
memoirist Peter Vyazemsky adhered to the theory of the "irony" of the poem, "I have erected a monument."Pushkin and Vyazemsky were friends, so literary critic insisted on a misreading of the product fans.He said that it is not a case of spiritual and literary heritage, and on the recognition of the society himself.It is known that contemporaries, spinning in circles where the poet frankly did not like him as a person.But it recognized a great creative potential of the Pushkin.
«I have erected a monument without hands" and had a "mystical" side.
Supporters 'mystical' version of the opinion that the poem is a prediction of the impending death of the poet, which he knew beforehand.Starting from that position and rejecting the version Viazemsky irony about the work, we can say that "Monument" was the spiritual testament of Pushkin.
prophetic vision has affected not only the poet's life, but also his work.Novelist and playwright knew that future generations will not only praise and honor him, and will be considered worthy of imitation.
There is also a legend that long before the tragic outcome of his career Alexander knew what particular day and what time of day it is waiting for death.It says that the death of the eminent blond hands him a fortune teller predicted.
Anticipating the approaching death and wanting to sum up his life, Pushkin turned to the most available source for itself - the pen - and wrote "Monument".
Pushkin.The poem "I have erected a monument without hands."A brief analysis
lyrical can be called of Alexander Sergeyevich.Story is the fate of the author, considered in the context of human history, as well as a subsequent contribution to the literature.
poet given the idea the place allotted to him in this world, what kind of relationship he formed with the community and readers.He hopes that life wasted in creative research, and gusts, was not in vain and will benefit future generations.He hopes that after death he will be remembered: "No, all I will not die."
also raised the problem of the poem the poet and poetry, poetic fame and poetic heritage.Pushkin wrote that the poet will overcome death through the creative heritage and the recognition of the descendants.
Each line "Monument" is permeated by pride in the fact that the poetry of the poet was free and benevolent: "I glorify the freedom and mercy for the fallen."
poem with an epigraph Exegi monumentum (in the lane. "I have raised a monument"), on the one hand, full of bright and cheerful colors, representing eternal life is art, but, on the other hand, it is a bit gloomy and sad, because this is the swan song of the poetSumming up the results of creative activity, which was Pushkin himself.
«I have erected a monument without hands."Artistic interpretation
poem by the rhythm of the sound can be called a slow, this is the slow pace gives it the stately rhythm.This effect is achieved due to the size of a single verse (iambic with trochee), ideal for cross-rhyme quatrains (quatrains), the alternation of feminine and masculine rhymes.
numerous artistic media also contributed to the creation of an atmosphere conducive to work.Among them are: anaphora (edinonachatie lines), inversion (inverse word order), the series of homogeneous members.
majestic tone of the work achieved through epithets: "a monument without hands" metaphor "soul my ashes survive and decay escape" avatars, "Muse ... praise and slander acceptable indifferent and not to challenge a fool," metonymy "the rumor about me pass throughall great Russia. "For lexical means include frequent use Slavonicisms (until, poet, head, raised).
basis of artistic, lexical richness of the poem, it is logical to conclude that, as predicted, and Alexander, he created his works for posterity "monument without hands."Pushkin lived, lives and will live through written works.