name of the writer, educator, Count Leo Tolstoy is known to every Russian man.When his life was published 78 works of art, another 96 have been preserved in the archives.In the first half of the XX century came the complete works, has 90 volumes and includes in addition to novels, short stories, essays, and so on. N. Numerous letters and diary entries of this great man is a tremendous talent and outstanding personal qualities.In this article, let us recall the most interesting facts from the life of Leo Tolstoy.
sale house in Yasnaya Polyana
The young count was known and loved gambling man, unfortunately, not very successfully, to play cards.It so happened that the house at Yasnaya Polyana, where the writer spent his childhood, was given for the debt.Subsequently, the empty space Tolstoy planted trees.Ilya Lvovich, his son recalled how his father once asked to show a room in the house where he was born.And Leo pointed to the top of one of the larch trees, adding: "There is."A leather sofa, where it
As for the house, then his two-storey wing survived and eventually grew.After marriage and the birth of children a family Tolstoy all increased, and with it joined up new premises.
Family education and children
Tolstoy Lev Nikolayevich always distinguished attachment to the family.The writer believed that she played a major role in the life of any person.With his wife, Sofya Andreyevna, they have lived in love and harmony for fifteen years.Then began to arise on the basis of an argument the negative attitude to the Count property and revise their life values.
Tolstoy was born in a family of thirteen children, five of whom died in infancy.Earl never regretted for their time, and before the crisis 80s loved to arrange mischief.For example, if during lunch pudding was served, the father noticed that they are well glued boxes.Children immediately brought to the dining room paper, and begins the process of creativity.
another example.Someone in the family sad or even cry.Seeing this graph instantly organized "Numidian cavalry."He jumps up, lifted up his hand and raced around the table, and children rushed him.
Tolstoy Lev Nikolayevich always distinguished love of literature.He regularly hosted at his home the evening reading.One picked up a book by Jules Verne without pictures.Then he started to illustrate it himself.Although the artist has turned out not very good, the family was delighted with what he saw.
Remembered children and humorous poems Tolstoy Leo Tolstoy.He read them on the wrong German with the same purpose: to lift the mood of the home.By the way, few know that in the artistic heritage of the writer has several poetic works.For example, the "Fool", "Volga-hero."They are mostly written for children and entered the well-known "ABC".
Thoughts of suicide
works of Leo Tolstoy became a writer way to study human characters in their development.Psychology in the image often demanded from the author of a great mental stress.So, while working on "Anna Karenina" with the writer almost happened trouble.He was in such a poor state of mind, he was afraid to repeat the fate of his hero Levin and commit suicide.Later in the "Confessions" Leo Tolstoy noted that the idea of it was so insistent that he was even taken out of the rooms where dressed alone, lace, and gave up hunting with a gun.
disappointment in the church
biography of Tolstoy Tolstoy's well researched and contains a lot of stories about how he was excommunicated from the church.Meanwhile, the writer has always considered himself a religious man, and a 77-year for several years to comply with any office and attended every church service.However, after visiting the Optina in the 81 th year that all changed.Tolstoy went there with his lackey, and a schoolteacher.There were, as expected, with a knapsack, in sandals.Once finally in the monastery, we discovered a terrible dirt and strict discipline.
Came pilgrims settled on a common basis, which angered the waiter, always refer to the master as his master.He turned to one of the monks, and said that the old man - is Leo Tolstoy.Creative writer was well known, and he was immediately transferred to the best room of the hotel.After returning from Optina Count expressed his dissatisfaction with such servility, and from that time changed their attitude to the church convention and its employees.Out of all the fact that one of the posts he took to dinner cutlet.
By the way, in the last years of his life the writer became a vegetarian, to give up meat completely.But at the same time every day to eat eggs in different forms.
In the early '80s - reported by Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy's biography - the writer finally came to the conclusion that an idle life and luxury do not paint man.He has long tormented the question of what to do: sell all their belongings and leave his beloved wife and unseasoned to the hard work of children without means?Or rewrite the entire estate on Sophia Andreyevna?Later Tolstoy divide between all family members.At this difficult time for him - the family had moved to Moscow - Leo loved to go to the Sparrow Hills, where he helped the peasants cut wood.Then learned shoemaking and even the shoes designed and summer shoes of canvas and leather, which went all summer.And every year helping peasant families in which there was no one to plow, sow and harvest grain.Not everyone approved of such a life of Leo Tolstoy.Tolstoy did not understand even in his own family.But he remained adamant.And in the summer, all Yasnaya Polyana broke into the farm and started mowing.Among workers was even Countess, rake the grass.
Help the starving
noting the interesting facts from the life of Leo Tolstoy, one can recall the events of 1898.Mtsensk and blackened counties once again broke the famine.The writer, dressed in the old entourage and Walkers, with a knapsack on his back with his son, volunteered to help him, personally traveled to all the villages and find out where the situation was really miserable.A week made lists and created about twelve tablespoons in each county where fed in the first place, children, the elderly and the sick.Food brought from Yasnaya Polyana, prepared by two hot meals a day.Tolstoy's initiative has caused a negative by the authorities, who have established for them permanent control and local landlords.The last thought that such actions could lead to the count that they would soon have to own and plow the field, and milk cows.
Once one of the dining rooms entered the tripod and began a conversation with the Count.He complained that although the writer approves of the act, but a free man, because does not know how to be - it was a permit for such activity governor.The answer turned out to be a writer is simple: "Do not serve where forced to act against their conscience."And such was the whole life of Leo Tolstoy.
In 1901, the writer fell ill with fever and severe on the advice of doctors went to the Crimea.There, instead of curing inflammation and has caught typhoid fever.I hope that he will survive virtually no choice.Leo Tolstoy, whose work includes many works describing the death of morally prepared for it.It is not at all afraid to depart this life.The writer even said goodbye to loved ones.Although speak could only whisper, each of their children has given valuable advice for the future, as it turned out, even for nine years before his death.It was very useful, since nine years later none of the family members - and they are almost all gathered at the station Astapovo - to the patient is not allowed.
Back in the 90s, Tolstoy in his diary expressed as to what I would like to see their funeral.Ten years later, in "Memoirs" he tells the story of the famous "green stick", a buried next to the ravine with oaks.And in 1908, dictates takers wish: to be buried in a wooden coffin to a place where a child looking for the source of eternal good brothers.
Tolstoy Leo Tolstoy, according to his will, was buried in the park of Yasnaya Polyana.At the funeral attended by several thousand people, among whom were not only friends, admirers, writers, and local farmers, to whom he had always treated with care and understanding.
history with the will
Interesting facts from the life of Leo Tolstoy and his concern with respect to the will of the creative heritage.Writer was composed of six wills: in 1895 (diaries), 1904 (letter to Chertkov), 1908 (dictated Gusev), twice in 1909-m and 1010-m.In one of them, all his records and the work enters the public use.On the other right on them transferred Chertkov.Eventually, Leo Tolstoy, creativity and all their records bequeathed his daughter Alexandra, with sixteen years became assistant to his father.
According to relatives, the writer always ironic attitude toward prejudice.But the figures twenty-eight considered it a special and loved.What was it - simple coincidence or fate fate?It is not known, but many of the most important events of life, and the first works of Leo Tolstoy are connected with it.Here is their list:
- August 28, 1828 - the date of birth of the writer.
- May 28, 1856 the first censorship gave permission for the publication of the first book with the story "Childhood and adolescence."
- first child was born June 28, Sergei.
- February 28 the wedding of the son of Elijah.
- October 28 writer forever gone from Yasnaya Polyana.