Epithets, metaphors, personification, comparison and poetic speech

Russian language is particularly colorful and expressive.It is particularly evident in works of art, but many epithets, metaphors, personification, comparison we say in everyday life, sometimes even without noticing it.

Where lies the expressiveness of speech

actually become a means of fine can be almost any word in the Russian language, which has an independent value.Indeed, any depiction is based on the use of the word in a figurative sense.The transfer may be different.In everyday speech often used metaphor and metonymy.People who tend to colorful speech, often resort to epithets.

ambiguity - a source of fine art

In Russian, a lot of adjectives and nouns, which is inherently more values.Some of them - straight, and some - portable.For example, consider the adjective "iron".This relative adjective that denotes the quality of the object of production material, literally "made of iron".However, the wise Russian people know that the iron - metal durable, and because there were adjectives that at

tach to most people (like Margaret Thatcher - The Iron Lady).In a figurative sense, the word refers to a strong, stable, strong character.If a person is willing to go forward and not stop the fear, then it has an iron will.If, say, an athlete, a boxer has a strong impact, he has an iron fist.Thus, even the most ordinary-looking words can easily turn into epithets, metaphors, personification, comparison.

Subtle metaphor

Russian metaphors do not always look colorful and bright.Sometimes we do not even know that their use in speech.

Actually, the metaphor - a lexical means of expression, based on the transfer of the similarity of the word.In literary texts, it is very common.For example, we read in Esenina: "In the garden, lit a bonfire of red mountain ash ...".Rowan autumn has a very bright color.She has red leaves and berries, like a bonfire.

Many words in the Russian language is formed by metaphor.For example, a door handle, table leg.It's all about function and purpose of things.Handle - for it to be taken, and the leg to the table styal.Butterfly larva we call the caterpillar and wheel tractors - caterpillars.The whole point of resemblance.The same can be said of chanterelles, their red color reminds the color of the animal's cunning fox.

We do not always notice that use epithets, metaphors, personification, comparison.For example, we say that we have a lot of problems.Although the problem - it is something that exists only as a concept in the mind of man, and therefore they can not be measured piles.When we see something confusing, then we call it a ball.A smoke, for example, can be compared with the cloud.

Incarnation as a means of expression

Incarnation - is a means of expression, based on the vesting inanimate object properties of the living.In poetic language it is used very often, especially in the description of nature.Brooks whispered verses, the sky is crying, worried cornfield and trees easily communicate with each other.Impersonation allows one to express one very important point: man and nature are inextricably linked to each other.

In everyday speech, we too often resort to impersonation.For example, when we say that the river runs, and the volcano went to sleep.Not to be confused with impersonation epithets.For example, "overcast sky" - this epithet.Since in this case the neck is an adjective.But "the sky clouds" - is the personification.


As epithets, metaphors, personification, comparison, helping to make it more colorful and expressive.Comparisons are usually formed due to the relatively unions as if, just as if, as though others. Sometimes it is expressed by a noun in the instrumental case.For example, a hawk soared.This combination can easily be transformed into a classic comparative turnover - soared like a hawk.

Based on comparison built many phraseological combinations in Russian: white as snow, all in a daze, like a dream, as the wind blew, as the spirit, and so on.


most frequency means of expression.Epithets in a poem or prose is very easy to find.Without them, it is practically impossible to describe the subject.In addition, they allow you to express the author's assessment, create the desired emotional state.

How to find adjectives, metaphors, personification, comparison of the texts

Firstly, you must know the definition of each of the funds.Secondly, the need to develop their vigilance.Try to select all the text from the "beautiful" words that give brightness, allow us to make the text more emotional.And already from all the usual words to choose emotive words and definitions, and then the means of expression.One example of Lermontov's poem "When the waves yellowing cornfield."It is small in volume, but is replete with figures of speech.

Epithets in the poem "Sweet Shadow", "fragrant dew", "lily of the valley silver", "ruddy night."

metaphor: "plunging thought into some vague dream."

Incarnation: the wave field, lily nods.