Nikolai Z: biography, creativity

Silver Age gave the world the wonderful galaxy of poets.Akhmatova, Mandelstam, Tsvetaeva, Gumilev, Blok ... Whether there was such an unusual time, whether the universe for a moment hesitated and missed the theory of probability is an incredible coincidence.But anyway, the beginning of the twentieth century - the time of fireworks, fireworks in the world of Russian poetry.Stars flashed and went out, leaving poems - the famous and not.

known unknowns Z

One of the most underrated writers of the time - the poet N. Z.Everyone knows that Akhmatova - a genius, but not everyone can quote her poems.The same applies to the Bloc or Tsvetaeva.But the creativity of Z know almost everything - but many have no idea that this is Z."Zatselovali, bewitched, with the wind in the field ...", "soul must work ..." and even "Kotja, kotenka, Kotok ...".All of this - Z Z.The poems belong to his pen.They went to the people, and the children began singing lullabies, the author's name has become a superfluous formality.On the

one hand - the most sincere declaration of love of all.On the other - a blatant injustice to the author.

prosaic poet

Curse undervaluation affected not only the poet, but in fact his life.She has always been "do not follow suit."It does not meet the standards, views and aspirations.For a scientist, he was a poet too, for the poet - too philistine, for the layman - a dreamer too.His spirit did not match his body.Blond medium height, round and full-bodied, Z gave the impression of a thorough and power.Solid young man rather prosaic appearance does not match the idea of ​​the true poet - sensitive, vulnerable and restless.And only people who knew Z was close to understand that under this external sham importance lies a surprisingly sensitive, sincere and cheerful person.

endless contradictions of Z

Even literary circle, which turned out to be Z Z was "wrong".Oberiuty - shameless, risible, paradoxical, it seemed most unsuitable company for a serious young man.Meanwhile, Z was very friendly and Harms, and Oleynikov, and Vvedensky.

Another paradox inconsistencies - Z's literary preferences.Famous Soviet poets left him indifferent.He did not like it and appreciate okololiteraturnoy medium Akhmatova.But restless, restless, ghostly syurrelistichny Zabolotsky poet Khlebnikov looked great and profound.

mentality of this man painfully contrasted with his appearance, his way of life and even the origin.

Childhood

Z Born 04/24/1903 in Kazan province, Kizichesky settlement.He spent his childhood on farms in the villages.Father - an agronomist, his mother - a rural teacher.They lived first in Kazan province, then moved to the village Sernur Vyatka province.Now that the republic of Mari El.Later, many noted the characteristic northern dialect, breaks in the speech of a poet - in fact there was a native Nicholas Z.The biography of this man is closely intertwined with his work.The love for the land, respect for the peasant labor, touching affection for animals, the ability to understand them - all Z issued from his rural childhood.

Z wrote poetry began early.In the third grade, he "published" handwritten journal, which published their own works.And he is doing it with the inherent nature of his diligence and care.

the age of ten Z enrolled in a real school Urzhum.There's a great interest not only in literature, as one might expect, but also in chemistry, drawing, history.These hobbies later determined the choice that made Nikolai Z.Biography of the poet retained traces of creative methane search itself.Arriving in Moscow, he went immediately to the two faculties of the University: Medicine and History and Philology.Later, he chose medicine, and yet even studied there for a semester.But in 1920, lived in the capital unaided student was difficult.Unable to withstand the lack of money, Z returned to Urzhum.

poet and scholar

Later Z yet graduated, but the Petrograd, the course "Language and Literature".He wrote poems, but his talent was not considered.And he spoke of his works of this period as a weak and through imitative.Surrounding seen him more learned than a poet.Indeed, science has been the area that has always interested Nikolai Z.Biography of the poet might have been different if he had made the decision not to engage in versification, and scientific research, which has always had a penchant.After training

Z was drafted into the army.During the service, he was a regimental wall newspaper editors and subsequently very proud that she was the best in the county.

Z Moscow

In 1927, Z yet returned to Moscow, from which seven years ago went to a big disappointment.But now he was no longer a student and a young poet.Z plunged into the seething literary life of the capital.He attended the debates and poetry evenings, having dinner in the famous cafes where poets were regulars Moscow.

During this period, the literary tastes of Z finally formed.He came to the conclusion that poetry should not be simply a reflection of the author's emotions.No need to say in verse about the important, relevant things about!As this view of poetry combined with a love of creativity Klebnikov - a mystery.But it was his Z thought only poet of the period, worthy of the memory of posterity.

Z surprising combination of incongruous.He was a scientist in spirit, practice and a pragmatist to the bone.Interested in mathematics, biology, astronomy, reading scientific papers on these subjects.The huge impression on his philosophical works Tsiolkovsky, Z even entered into correspondence with the author, discussing the theory of cosmogony.At the same time, it was subtle, lyrical, emotional poet, writing poetry, infinitely far from academic dryness.

first book

It was then that the list of members Oberiu there was another name - Nicholas Z.Biography and work of this man were closely connected with the circle of poets and innovators.Absurd, grotesque, illogical style of oberiutov in conjunction with the academic thinking of Z and his deep sensitivity allows to create works of the complex and multifaceted.

In 1929 published the first book of Z - "Columns".Unfortunately, the result was the publication of a mockery of critics and dissatisfaction with the official authorities.Fortunately for the Z's, no serious consequences this casual conflict with the regime did not have.Therefore, after the publication of the book was published in the magazine "Star" and even preparing material for the next book.Unfortunately, this book of poems and was not signed into print.A new wave of persecution forced to leave the poet dreams of publication.

Z Z began working in the genre of children's literature, in the media, which he oversaw Marshak - at that time in the literary world figure of exceptional importance.

Job interpreter

In addition, Z started doing translations."The Knight in the Panther's Skin" is still familiar to readers is the translation of Z.In addition, he translated and transcribed for children's books "Gargantua and Pantagruel", "Till Eulenspiegel" and one for "Gulliver's Travels."

Marshak, interpreter number one country, spoke highly of the work of Z's.Then the poet began working on the translation from Old Slavic "Lay."It was a lot of work done incredibly talented and thoroughly.

Translated Z and Alberto Saba, little known in the Soviet Union of the Italian poet.

Marriage In 1930 he married Catherine Z canine.Friends-oberiuty spoke about it very warm.Even stinging Harms and Oleynikov were fascinated by the fragile silent girl.

Life and Work of Z have been closely associated with this amazing woman.Z never been rich.Moreover, he was poor, sometimes just needy.The meager income barely allowed the interpreter to support his family.And all these years Ekaterina Klykova not only supported the poet.It is completely handed him the reins of the family, never in arguing with him and did not reproach.Even friends of the family were amazed devotion to women, noting that there is a dedication to something not quite natural.The way home, the slightest economic decisions - all this determines only Z.

arrest

So when in 1938 the poet was arrested canine life collapsed.All five years of imprisonment of her husband she spent in Urzhum in extreme poverty.

Z was accused of anti-Soviet activities.Despite the long and exhausting interrogation and torture, he signed the indictments, did not recognize the existence of an anti-Soviet organization and did not name any of the prospective members.Maybe that's what saved his life.The verdict was the conclusion of the camp, and Z spent five years in Vostoklage, located in Komsomolsk-on-Amur.There, in inhuman conditions, Z engaged poetic transcription "Lay."As it explained to the poet - to keep yourself as a person, do not fall to the state in which it is already impossible to create.

last years

In 1944 the term was interrupted, and Z received the status of an exile.Year he lived in the Altai, which arrived with his wife and children, then moved to Kazakhstan.Those were difficult times for the family.Lack of work, money, perpetual insecurity and fear.They were afraid of being arrested again, afraid that turned out of the shelter, afraid of everything.

In 1946, Z returns to Moscow.He lives with friends, earns translations, life is slowly improving.And then another tragedy happens.Wife, endlessly loyal devoted wife, courageously has survived all the hardships and burdens, suddenly goes to another.Do not betray fear for their lives or the lives of children, do not run out of poverty and misery.Just forty-nine years this woman goes to another man.It broke Z's.Proud, proud poet painfully experienced the collapse of family life.Z's life gave the bank.He darted frantically seeking out, trying to create a semblance of a normal existence.He offered his hand and heart unfamiliar, in fact, a woman, and, according to the recollections of friends, not even in person, and by phone.Hastily married, some time spent with the new wife and left her, simply deleting the second wife of his life.It was she, and not his wife, was devoted to the poem "Precious is my woman."

Z went to work.He has translated and fruitful, he had orders, and finally he began to earn decently.He was able to survive a break with his wife - but he could not survive her return.When Catherine returned to Klykova Zabolockij he suffered a heart attack.Eighteen months later, he was ill, but in that time managed to put in order all his affairs: sorted poetry, wrote his will.He was a thorough man's death as well as in life.By the end of the life of the poet had money and popularity, and the reader's attention.But it could no longer change anything.Z's health was undermined by years of camps and poverty, and the heart of an old man could not stand the stress caused by emotions.

Z's Death 10/14/1958 come year.He died on the way to the bath where he was going to brush your teeth.Doctors banned Zabolotsky get up, but he was always neat person and even a bit pedantic at home.