In this article we look at a portrait of Russian art.The value of this genre is that the artist is trying to convey with the help of real-life material image of man.That is, with due skill we can learn through the pictures with a certain era.
addition, artists are trying to not only depict the trappings, but also to convey the internal state of the person who poses.
Read on and you will learn milestones Russian portraits from the Middle Ages to modern times.
Portrait genre in art
portrait in fine arts as we understand it today, stood out recently.Only in the middle of the seventeenth century historian at the court of the French king Louis XIV, Andre Feliben, he proposed to call this word only images of people.
Until that time, this term was defined as all images, whether animal, vegetable or mineral.In the Middle Ages to the animals was a little different attitude than it is now.They could subpoena, tortured and judged, according to legal norms.
Following Felibenom Arthur Schopenhauer expres
Thus, the portrait in art and literature appeared for a long time, but in ancient times it should imply any "fine work."
The development of this genre is obliged to two things - improve the technology of writing (composition, anatomy, etc.), as well as a change in the perception of man's place in the world.The greatest flowering of portraits falls on the eighteenth century, when Western Europe was dominated by the idea of individuality and realization of the ideal in the personal.
own portrait in the art of Russia has arisen only on the boundary of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.Before there were images in medieval style, where individuality fades into the background.
basis of the early period of Russian art up icons.Such works lasted until the seventeenth century.
But changes began in the late period of Kievan Rus.To have survived the similarity group portraits Svyatoslav family, daughters of Yaroslav the Wise.There are also several examples of drawings with a certain individuality, for example, Yaroslav Vsevolodovich to the temple in his hand.So he was rewarded for a donation for the construction work.
first attempts to move away from the canonical and ecclesiastical letters towards secular painting took place during the reign of Ivan the Terrible.We see his image in some books.Such a move was made solely because Hundred Chapters cathedral, which ruled and legislated reflection of kings, princes, and the people on the icons.
In the seventeenth century art continues to improve.We see that the portrait in the art of Russia is becoming more individual features.There is such a genre as "parsuna."This distortion of the word "person".
Such works were created on tablets even tempera, that is, in the style of icon, it displays images of people in his lifetime.The oldest such painting was parsuna Mikhail Vasilyevich Skopin-Shumsky.
However, it was created as a burial portrait "Mantle".But the image of her Prince was written, "Resurrection", revived in a better world, so its characteristics are different from canonical faces on icons.
Gradually move away from church dogma borrowed technology from Europe.So, from the territory of the Commonwealth comes "Sarmatian portrait" genre picture gentry.
addition, Muscovy painters come from Western Europe, to train the local artists.Create a "titulyarniki" (special book, which depicts an exemplary portraits of European rulers).
own "portrait" of Russian art only appears during the reign of Peter the Great.This period was a turning point in the life of the country.Art reflected the trend of new trends.
at the portrait appears volume and depth, artists master the future.Born understanding of light and shadow, begin experimenting with the colors on the canvas.Also, there is a final separation of church and secular art.
Now the painting is divided into three trends - archaizing, Rossika and national school.
first is inherent in the transition from "parsuna" to easel painting.The second is represented by the works of foreign artists in Russia.Domestic same school expressed in the works of Nikitin, Antropov, Vishnjakova, Matveev and Argunova.
is noteworthy that the Russian artists of the period, first mastered, so to speak "caught up" in Europe.But a few years later there are already working completely independently, with their vision.That is starting the development of local centers of world-class art.
end of the XVIII century
Gradually portrait in Russian art becomes the property of the middle strata of society.Until the middle of the eighteenth century depict only notable person close to the royal family, but now there are not only portraits of nobles and landlords, but even a few peasants.The latter, in particular, was due solely to educational ideas of society.
In the fifties and sixties of the eighteenth century, a special tone asked portraits of the Empress Elizabeth.Many noble families ordered a canvas similar to this pattern.
also important researchers see an independent path of local artists.They expressed their vision in the colors and attributes inherent in a baroque, compared with European artists who worked in the Rococo style.
works of Russian artists simply overflowing with colorful images, faces, full of life and rosy rosy lady.
Classicism and Silver Age
gradually seeing a shift towards intimacy.At the end of the eighteenth century, it is hard to distinguish between the West European and Russian portrait.Genre in the visual arts comes to the world stage.Only now there is bright and lush baroque forms.
progress through the transition to the Rococo and Neoclassicism predromantike.There are sentimental and light tone.The main feature of this period was historicism.That is, the tone was set formal portraits of the imperial family.
This era is reflected in the works of the Shchukin, Rokotoff, and Borovikovsky Levitsky.
Then comes the period of Romanticism.Here, the most famous artists are Bryullov Varnek, Tropinin and Kiprensky.
Later comes the realism that is inherent in the paintings of Repin, Surikov and Serov.
Silver Age of Russian painting gave the world artists such as Malevich, Vrubel, Malyutin, Somov, Konchalovsky and others.
portrait of Soviet
portrait in contemporary art is not determined by ideology, as it was in Soviet times, and the financial aspect.
But between the paintings of Malevich and our time there is a whole epoch of the Soviet Union.
you develop the idea of the first wave of avant-gardism, Moscow and Leningrad school, "Builders of Bratsk".The fundamental feature of socialist realism was.
Thus, we are now acquainted with the history of the portrait in Russian art.