Daniil Kharms: biography, creative way

1928.Leningrad House press agog controversial performances of young writers who call themselves OBERIU.They recited poems written nonsense, put absurdist "Elizabeth of Bam", and to top it all over the world have revealed a mounting film with a promising title "Meat Grinder".Chief among oberiutov was Daniil Kharms, whose biography was the theme of this article.

Early Years

future poet was born on December 30, 1905.Propensity to literary work was passed on genetically to Daniel, his father, was in correspondence with Chekhov and Tolstoy, was known not only in revolutionary activities, but also samples of the pen, and his mother was a noblewoman by birth, and was in charge of the shelter.Brief biography Daniil Kharms includes mention of his excellent education in a privileged German school.After the Revolution he was listed in elektrotehnikum Leningrad, where he was dismissed with the phrase "poor attendance" inactivity in public works. "

origins of literary activity

When Harms Daniil Ivanovich,

whose biography has been the subject of many studies, and changed his name Yuvachev finally believed in his talent as a writer?The first use of the alias occurs at the beginning of the 1920s.Unraveling the names "Harms" (and its many variants, among them - Hharms, Haarms and nowhere grafted Karl Ivanovich) tried to find in numerous dialects.The most plausible should recognize the analogy with the English and French languages.If the first harm - is the "harm" in the second word means like a charm, appeal.

Around the Harms wrote his first poems.As a guideline, he chooses Khlebnikov, or rather, his close admirer A. Tufanov.Subsequently, "Order zaumnik" filled up such a talented poet Daniil Kharms.His biography also indicates that in 1926 he joined the Russian Union of poets, where he was expelled for non-payment of contributions.


In the first half of the 20s have to familiarity with Harms and Vvedensky Druskin, who is the founder of the circle "Chinar".Subsequently, there will Daniel, who decided to unite all the "leftist" writers under one name, one group - Oberiu.This abbreviation stands for the complex as the "Association of Real Art".What is interesting in the manifesto of the group, published in 1928, the school "zaum" oberiuty declared the most hostile to him.Harms renounced the destruction of the words, the usual game of nonsense.The purpose of the group was of global and projected to the world.Oberiuty sought to clear the subject of "the literary husks" to make it more real perception.This applies both to its avant-garde experiments clearly (poems "Meeting Evil wrong", "I sang ..."), and works by wearing a humorous character.

Harms explains the phenomenon of the absurd in prose miniatures like "Blue notebook number 10", "Sonnet", "Tumbling Old Women".According to him, the logic of art should be different from the everyday.In results Harms example the case when the artist, contrary to the laws of anatomy, some twisted blade of the main character, which, however, does not prevent us, the viewers, to admire the beauty of nature shown.Created Daniel and dramatic works (such as the aforementioned "Elizabeth BAM"), which are easy to fit into the context of the experiences of other oberiutov.

works for children

How to further develop the biography of Daniel Harms?For children, he began to write at the end of the 20s, collaborating with a number of magazines.It worked and the other members Oberiu, but, unlike them, Harms responsible attitude to their current job, which has become the will of the fate of his only source of income.The magazines published poems, puzzles poet, he published a number of books ("The first and second", "Game" and so on. D.).Some of them were banned or not recommended for public libraries, while others were much loved among young readers.

Harms in 1930

This period was particularly difficult for the writers who do not want to put their talent to the conveyor.Among them is Daniel Harms.Biography (autobiography, or rather) that time is embodied in the sorrowful lines of the poem "On a visit to the writer's house ...".Poet with surprise and indignation finds that his friends turned away from him, fell out of favor writer.Harms first arrest took place in December 1931.Formally, the sentence relating to the activities of the poet in the field of children's literature, although the true reason for the arrest was connected with Oberiu.Apparently, the Soviet government could not forgive him for shocking, scandalous few tricks that characterize the art of the avant-garde - both understood what Daniil Kharms.Biography of the poet in the 30-ies of different ideological crisis and persistent material deprivation.However, to cope with them helped him second wife - Marina Malich, who stayed with the poet to the end of his life.


war began.Harms met her defeatist attitude and unwillingness to take part in it, for which he was arrested for the second time.To avoid execution, Harms feigned insanity.He was placed in a psychiatric hospital, where he died in the terrible events of the siege of Leningrad.So he ended his career Daniil Kharms, biography and artistic heritage which is now of considerable interest.