novel by Mikhail Bulgakov - a truly amazing and a work of genius of his time.For many years, it did not go out because of their acute social.Many of the characters, "Master and Margarita" copied from real people, prominent figures of the Soviet Union and a close circle of the writer, because he was constantly on the brink of arrest.Most of the heroes Bulgakov gave him a hateful human traits.
exact date is unknown work on the novel.Some drafts Bulgakov Set in 1928, in other - 1929. Absolutely it is known that in March 1930 the writer burned the first edition of the work.This happened due to the ban of the play "The Cabal of Hypocrites."
currently existing title of the novel appeared in 1937, before Bulgakov called his work "Fantasy novel" (second edition) and "Prince of Darkness" (third edition).
completely novel was written in the early summer of 1938, but Mikhail Bulgakov brought it related to the death.In total, the work on the main work was carried out in the life of more than t
Unfortunately, the writer has not been able to see his work published.The first publication of the novel took place in 1966 in one of the literary magazines.Weighty work was cut down, but thanks to the creation of the wife of Bulgakov's "Master and Margarita" nevertheless became world famous.Roman testament to the great writer has found immortality.
main characters of "The Master and Margarita"
writer himself after the destruction of the first edition of the book pointed out that burned a novel about the devil.Voland, in fact, is the main driving force behind the work.He is without a doubt an important character.
Along with Satan the main characters of the novel - a Master and Margarita, despite the fact that they appear far from the beginning of the book.Master appears only in chapter 12, Margarita, and that then - in the nineteenth.
There are many hypotheses in the philological world as to who is the lead character.As the title of the work and position of the image in the book Woland, select only three dominant figure.
reader first meets Woland at the beginning of the book.And immediately his image makes an ambiguous impression.The features of his character, which can be derived on the basis of his actions, coincide with the external features.In itself it is a dual figure, hence the different colored eyes, and eyebrows different heights.The cynical and cunning, it is both generous and noble.
Not surprisingly, Berlioz and Ivan, the first who saw Professor Woland, were confused and entangled in their contradictory feelings.Stories that tells this strange citizen, do not find rational explanations for the listeners.
But Woland came to Moscow not to carry the story.He had a very definite purpose, which helps him to carry out a diabolical retinue.They make a real chaos in the capital.The theater "Variety" has become a place for the sessions of black magic.Ladies were promised a new dress, in the end, they ran out in his underwear.Untold wealth falling from the ceiling, and then turned into a priceless piece of paper.
purpose of arrival to earth Woland and his retinue was considered punishment for failure to comply with the biblical commandments.Actually, it's probably the first image of the devil in the literature that seeks to balance the good and evil, light and darkness.
other characters Messer said that came to Moscow to study recently discovered manuscripts, hold a session of black magic and dance.
It opens at the ball Woland his true colors.The reader is presented Satan himself.Taking his henchmen, he was hiding in the next world the next day.
Origin Voland not immediately clear.Homeless Poet wondered whether a foreigner is not his new friend, because all issues Professor stranger: image, manner of speaking, his actions.
Mikhail Bulgakov borrowed the name of the protagonist of the poem "Faust" by Goethe.Voland, or Faland - one of the names of the devil.Many researchers agree that the prototype of Satan himself became the leader of the people - Stalin, in which as well as in Woland, got on a tyrant and good-natured.
Sweet prince of darkness calls him not only as "sir" and "lord", hence the name Voland reader learns not at once.
Master Master - graduate historian, who has always dreamed of watching and writing activities.After winning the lottery had had such an opportunity.He was the creator of the novel about Pontius Pilate and Yeshua, in its own way comprehended Gospel events, but came almost to madness after his work criticized the nines.
name of the hero is not mentioned in the book Bulgakov.Nicknamed "The Master" Margaret gave him, his beloved.However, he was embarrassed by such treatment.He always avoided situations where it was necessary to call himself.The poet Ivan Homeless, he states that he does not have a name and surname.
Exterior features a character absent.Obviously, he is attractive, but the longing in his eyes erases all the gloss.He was about forty years old, he is dark-haired and always clean-shaven, even in the hospital.
reader will understand the fact that the Master decommissioned from the Bulgakov, and a relationship with Margaret are very similar to his life with his third wife Elena Sergeevna.Master, as Mikhail Bulgakov, burned his novel and Margarita, as well as Elena Shilovskaya saves its remnants.
Same age as the two artists and their relationship with literary critics, as Bulgakov has repeatedly been ridiculed and persecuted for their work.
The novel is not exactly described how the Master gets to a psychiatric hospital.Some literary scholars believe that this is the last edition of the novel defects, others insist that the writer does so referring to the repression of the 30's, when a man could disappear forever.
Margarita Margarita Nikolaevna - a friend of the Master, separated from their loved ones.She gladly accepts an offer to become the queen of Woland at the ball as he promised to do one of her desire.Margaret longed to be reunited with the Master, which eventually happened because Satan.
Name Margarita reader does not know until the middle of the novel, Master conceals his beloved.
Margarita - is a collective image, absorbed much of Gretchen ("Faust" by Goethe), and the writer's wife Elena Shilovskaya.In particular, the described meeting Master and Margarita - an exact copy of Bulgakov's acquaintance with his wife.
Some researchers see the features of the French queens Margaret (Marguerite de Valois and Margot Navarre), and in the text there is a reference to their similarity (the phrase Koroviev character of kinship with the French royal court).
Margarita depicted in the novel, a beautiful but bored wife secured a man who finds the meaning of life after a meeting with the Master.
NA Bulgakov made his main character a symbol of love and sacrifice, and support the writer's muse, ready to give his life for the sake of the beloved.
Woland and his entourage often themselves are the driving force behind all the unrest taking place in Moscow.Sometimes they act merely as observers.Satan's henchmen in the city only five.Each has its own mission, its assignment.
cows Bassoon plays the role of conductor and interprenera it - the equivalent of the right hand of his master.His name consists of two parts.Cow - derived from the name of the hero of the story "The Village of Stepanchikovo."Bulgakov's Koroviev has dozens of features Korovkina invented by Dostoevsky.The second part of the name - the title of a musical instrument.Here the writer was guided by external data character, because, like a bassoon, Bulgakov demon thin, high and there can be three times to execute the order master.
cows Bassoon seems that the characters of the book translator, the regent, the skilful fraud.The true his mask, demons and hell, is not immediately opened.But the attentive reader will notice how there is a hero in the story.It literally arises from the hot air in Moscow (according to legend is a harbinger of a terrible heat joining evil forces).
cat Behemoth - a hero who can try on any image.This character symbolizes profligacy and gluttony, is also a favorite pastime of Woland, his jester.
Bulgakov this character was introduced solely for the satirical and humorous notes woven into a complex philosophical and moral meaning of the novel.This is indicated by all the things that made the cat Behemoth (shootout with detectives, a game of chess with sir, shooting competition with Azazello).
Hella - a character who can perform any task.A female vampire is indispensable servant Voland.In the novel, it shows the green-eyed girl with long red hair, which moves freely through the air.This gives it a special affinity with the witch.Presenting his servant Margarita Woland indicates its promptness, helpfulness and intelligence.
assumed that many vampire traits Gell, spied in Bulgakov novel "The Vampire" by Alexei Tolstoy.From there, smacking and clicking teeth, devil's kiss, because of which Varenukha longer cast shadows and become a vampire.Hella - a character who is the only one of the whole retinue Voland was not involved in the last stage of flight.
Azazello appears as a link, a recruiter for Black Affairs sir.It is an unattractive character, short, with reddish sticking out in different directions, the hair, protruding fangs.Complete the image of patent leather shoes, bowler hat on his head and a striped suit Azazello.Margarita, the first time when she saw him, called predatory character mug.
Abaddon exists somewhere in the background, and differs from the rest of their sympathetic attitude to the world as the evil, and to the world of good.
Biblical part of the novel "The Master and Margarita" written by Bulgakov based on the Gospel of Matthew, but he uses the Aramaic names that are considered historically accurate (Yeshua instead of Jesus).
Bible story in the novel the writer divided into three parts.The first tells Voland at Patriarch's Ponds, the second dream the poet Homeless, third reading Margarita.The chapters of the Bible there are many references to the Soviet system of power and administration.
Characters "Master and Margarita" - Aphranius (chief of the secret police of Pilate), Judas (resident Yershalaim who betrayed Yeshua), Joseph Caiaphas (the priest who sent Yeshua to death), Matthew Levi (a disciple of Yeshua, who shot him down from the cross), PontiusPilate and Yeshua, as well as several other characters.
Pontius Pilate, procurator of Judea
designed to determine the fate of Yeshua Ha-doomed to death.Tough and domineering man, he decided on the interrogation of the accused.During this dialogue, Pontius Pilate was absolutely fascinated by Joshua, but in spite of the miracles showed him (Ha-cured migraine procurator), the death penalty was confirmed.
Because of his sympathy for Yeshua Pilate decided on revenge.He orders to kill the man who framed Ha-pass Sanhedrin.
Pontius Pilate and Yeshua imbued each other inexplicable feelings, because of which the first to suffer the rest of his life.He understood that he had signed his own sentence truly a miracle.Therefore, all his physical and unconscious life was imprisoned, he for himself and created.During the last flight of Satan Woland he asked his opponent to grant freedom of Pilate, which he did.
Bible story in the novel is different from the gospel on many aspects that are not considered Bulgakov.Yeshua shows an ordinary man has the gift of empathy, which pursue the crowd of fanatics and followers.Actually, because of their misinterpretation of preaching Yeshua, and the last was on the verge of death.Yeshua tells Pilate one particularly obsessive pursuer, mangled his words.His name was Matthew Levi.The Master and Margarita finally got the long-awaited peace thanks to him.
Most literary critics describe as the antithesis of Yeshua Woland.But there is another, more entertaining version.Jesus is not a prototype of Yeshua.The hero of Bulgakov - the embodiment of hypocrisy, the mask, which is endowed with the spirit of different guises.Perhaps this version was born because of the religious preferences of the writer.He was an ardent atheist, but not adhered to church order.
Yeshua different from the Gospel of Jesus birth and the details of life and worldview.He positioned himself as a philosopher, but in the novel it is not specifically stated.Joshua says that all people are good, Jesus says in the Gospel that good and evil exist together in the human heart.
author's attitude to the character is quite unique.Bulgakov and endorses him like generosity and humanity of Yeshua, but it does not recognize the divinity and does not see the point of self-sacrifice.
Characters "Master and Margarita" mostly copied from real people, and in some cases are sharp parodies of them.For example, the prototype Archibald Archibaldovich was Jacob Rosenthal, the restaurant manager Herzen House (featured in the novel House restaurant Griboyedov).
In the novel, the reader sees a parody of the Moscow Art Theater director Nemirovich-Danchenko in the face of Bengal, the fate of which is the personification of hate cynical political writer to "suck-up" (he was beheaded).
some of the characters the writer did not even bother to change the names.For example, you can learn a neighbor Annushka Bulgakov, and Dr. Kuzmin was in fact the child's doctor.
Bulgakov also uses the names of speakers (Likhodeev, Bogohulsky, Barefoot), which acts as a direct response characters."Master and Margarita" - is not the first novel of the writer, in which he uses prototypes.For example, "The White Guard", he sketched the image Nikolka turbine with his brother.
Mikhail Bulgakov - a wonderful writer, able to work in one to sing a beautiful love story, the theme of freedom, answers to their philosophical questions and subtly, just some hints, draw a satirical skits, characters who were intolerant to his people.