interest to us is the product of perhaps the most popular monument of the XVII century.Its name later even became a saying: "Shemyakin court" refers to an unfair trial, a parody of it.There are poetic and dramatic arrangements of "The Tale of Shemyakin court", as well as its cheap popular playback.In addition, she gave birth to the famous fairy tale of the poor and the rich brother.
problems of authorship, sources
author of "The Tale of the Shemyakin court" is not known, because it is the origin of folk.The researchers sought out works similar in content to the Indian, Persian literature.We also know that the same plot worked famous writer Mikołaj Rej, who lived in the XVII century and received the honorary title of "father of Polish literature."In some lists directly stated: "of Polish books" has been written, "The Tale of the Shemyakin court".Questions of its sources, however, remained unresolved.There is no conclusive evidence on the relationship Russian monument to a particular work of foreign
«Tale of Shemyakin court": the content
The first part of the novel tells of incidents (both hilarious and sad) that have occurred since the poor farmer.It all starts with the fact that his rich brother gives him a horse, but forget about the yoke.The protagonist of wood-sledge binds to the tail, and the tears.Next misfortune happened with the peasant, when he spent the night at the priest in the loft (that is, on the rug).Supper, naturally, a greedy priest did not call.Zaglyadevshis on lomivshiysya dishes from the table, the main character accidentally zashibaet baby son ass.Now for these offenses to be the poor man court.From despair he wants to commit suicide, and rushes to the bridge.And again - the failure.Himself a farmer is tselehonkim, but the old man, who landed the main character, has gone to the hereafter.
So the farmer will have to answer for the three offenses.The reader expects the climax - a cunning and unjust judge Shemyaka, having wrapped in a shawl stone by generous promises, it decides in favor of the poor peasant.So, the first victim had to wait until the horse grow a new tail.The priest offered to give his peasant wife, from whom she must bear the child.A son of the old man who died in compensation should he fall from the bridge and zashib poor peasant.Naturally, all of these decisions victims decide to pay off.
«Tale of Shemyakin court" is divided into two parts.The first part consists of three episodes described above.By themselves, they are perceived as the usual funny jokes that function strings.Here they are, as it were taken out of the scope of the main narrative, although the classic examples of such stories about vessels not observed.In addition, all described events there narrated in the past tense.And not in the present, the difference between "The Tale of the Shemyakin court".This feature gives a dynamic story of ancient monument.
The second component of the composition is more complex: the actual sentences Shemyaka that are mirror images of adventurous poor man peasant precedes frame - the scene, the defendant shows the judge "reward."
tradition of satire
satire was very popular in the literature of the XVII century.The fact that its demand can be explained by the specifics of the social life of the time.There was a strengthening of the role of trade and craft of the population, but this did not contribute to the development of his civil rights.The satire subjected to condemnation and denunciation of many aspects of the society of that time - the unfair trial, bigotry and hypocrisy of monasticism, extreme social inequality.
«Tale of Shemyakin court" fits into the tradition.The reader of that time certainly would have realized that the story parodies the "Code" in 1649 - a set of laws that are offered to choose the punishment depending on whether the offender was a crime.Thus, the penalty for murder was assumed, and the production of counterfeit money were punished, filling his throat lead.That is "The Story of Shemyakin court" can be defined as a parody of the old Russian legal proceedings.
story ended happily for the shabby peasant, he won over the world of injustice and tyranny."Truth" is stronger than "falsehood."As for the judge, he brought a valuable lesson from what happened: "A Tale of Shemyakin court" ends with pettifogger learns the truth about "the promise."Nevertheless, he even enjoys its own sentences, because otherwise, it would be cobblestones from it kicked spirit.
«Tale of Shemyakin court" is fast action, comic situations in which the characters come and emphasized dispassionate manner of narration, that only reinforces the satirical sound of ancient monument.These features indicate the proximity of magic lead to social and domestic folk tales.