Literary trails: types, features, use

Each word in the Russian language has a nominative value.This helps to correlate it with reality and to express thoughts.In addition to the basic values ​​of most of the words included in a certain number of associative and has an additional symbolic significance, which often is portable.This property is actively using lexical poets and writers to create works of art, and a similar phenomenon in the Russian language has been called figures of speech and literary trail.They give expression text and help to accurately convey his thoughts.

Species Fine Art and funds

Among tropes isolated epithets, similes, metaphors, personification, metonymy, paraphrase, synecdoche, litotes, hyperbole.The ability to see them in the text of a work of art allows us to understand the ideological plan of the author, enjoy the wealth of superb Russian language.And the use of tropes in his speech - a sign of a competent person, cultural, able to speak accurately and expressively.

How to recognize the text, and to learn

to use the literary trail?

table with examples of the works of art

see how doing it recognized poets and writers.

Literary trails




adjective rarely noun, adverb, participle, drinking in a figurative sense, and is denotedan essential feature of the subject

«And the eyes of the bottomless blue bloom ..." (Blok)


turnover with unions as if, as if LIKE or words of similar, or similar;noun in the instrumental case;adjective or adverb in the comparative degree.The bottom line is likening

«block seemed to me ... expensive ..., in spring bush a nightingale ... » (K. Balmont)


based on the transfer value of the similarity

«... fire ... full of soul » (M. Lermontov)


animation of natural phenomena, objects

« Azure heaven laughs ... » (F. Tiutchev)


transfer values ​​adjacency

« Scolded Homer, Theocritus ...» (Pushkin), ie,their works


imply a transfer of values ​​based on the ratio in quantity: only instead of the plural and vice versa

«To him ... and the beast does not suit ...» (Pushkin)


Excessive exaggeration

« Muzhichok ... with nail » (NA Nekrasov)


excessive understatement

« of the wings komarishkiHe made himself two shirt-fronts »(Aksakov)


name of an object or phenomenon through a substantial, well-recognized symptom

« I love you, Peter's creation ... »(A.Pushkin), ie,St. Peteburg

Thus, literary trails - table fully reflects their essential characteristics - define the powers of even a person who does not have special education.It is only necessary to understand their essence.To do this, we consider the more the means of expression that would normally cause the greatest difficulties.

metaphor and personification

Unlike comparisons in which there are two object or phenomenon - the original and the one that is taken for comparison, these literary paths contain only the second.The metaphor of the similarity can be expressed in color, obmom, form, purpose, etc.Here are examples of such use of words in a figurative sense: « moon clock wooden », « noon breathing ».

Impersonation different metaphor that represents a more detailed way: « unexpectedly raised the wind tossed and moaned all night ».

metonymy synecdoche, paraphrase

These literary trail is very often confused with the above metaphor.To avoid such errors, you should remember that the manifestation of adjacency in metonymy may be as follows:

  • content and the fact that it includes: « eat a plate »;
  • author and his work: « remembered all Gogol »;
  • action and an instrument for its commission: « villages were doomed swords »;
  • subject and the material from which it is made: « porcelain exhibition »;
  • place and there are people: « city has not slept ».

Synecdoche usually implies a quantitative relationship between objects and phenomena: « then everyone is aiming at Napoleons ».


Sometimes writers and poets for emphasis and creating imagery replace the name of the object or phenomenon indication of its essential features.Paraphrase also helps to eliminate duplicates and link proposals in the text.Consider these examples of the literary trail: « shining steel » - a dagger, « author of" Mumu »- Turgenev,« reaper »- death.