animalistic theme rightly considered eternal.Its elements can be found in folklore, and in works of classical and contemporary literature.Alexander Kuprin, Jack London, Gerald Durrell - that the authors who have written about animals (not a complete list).Despite the fact that the number of animalistic works of these writers are different, and the depth of their talent is not the same, they have created a comprehensive and memorable images of "our younger brothers" that attract readers to this day.
Sometimes, to determine who wrote about animals, it is difficult.Frames animal genre is so fluid and vague that it can be included if desired, and the tale of Kolobok, and "The Metamorphosis" by Franz Kafka.That is why literary critics developed a detailed classification of all works about animals:
- «Classic» animalism representing fauna self-sufficient, independent of man.A striking example - stories of Seton-Thompson.
- comparative anthropology: the animal is compared to a man who realizes that he has a lot to learn from "smaller brothers".A sample of such a comparison - "Song of the Falcon" by Maxim Gorky.
- Animal tinged with sentimentality, when the image is seen bestiarity finding something lost long ago, that evokes a feeling of nostalgia.
- fictional tales and fables with animals as the main characters of the characters, and so on. D.
also simultaneously uses the term "naturalistic literature", but its thematic range is somewhat broader than that animalistic works, and includes stories and novels about the plants.
Ernest Thompson Seton
Among those who wrote stories about animals, perhaps the most famous is a Canadian writer Thompson Seton.Although he lived in Canada, not always: in this part of North America, he moved with his parents, as a 6-year-old boy.From childhood he was accustomed to nature and plains more than a society of people.So there is nothing strange in the fact that the heroes of his first works were not representatives of the human race, and ... birds.
During his life Seton Thompson released thousands of articles written scientific and popular style, as well as books that are valuable for the science of animals.While fans of artistic expression is best known as the author of his fascinating story, opening the natural world from an unexpected angle ("Lobo", "Mustang-pacer" and so on. D.).Seton-Thompson, known for his paintings, as well as the creation of "Vudkraftskogo society", which will be the prototype of the modern Boy Scout organizations.This idea prompted Thompson Seton-long study of Indian culture, originating from the early years of the writer.
«My Family and Other Animals»
Sometimes, the authors of works about animals were forced to temporarily abandon their hobbies - zoology - and turn to the literature due to material causes.So it was with Gerald Durrell.Even as a child, he raved about the animals and all that is connected with them.At age 14, the boy got a job in a shop "Aquarium", and after World War II tried his hand at the zoo "Whipsnade" as the "boy in the pozveryushkah."In 1947, Gerald gets his share of the inheritance of his father, which he spent on the expedition successfully.Left without money and work, Darrell on the advice of his brother, the famous novelist, tries himself in the writers are.And very well, it should be noted.This was especially true of the first part of the Greek trilogy "My Family and Other Animals."Only in England the book was published more than 30 times!
Animalistic theme of classical Russian literature
Unlike the above writers, works by Russian authors of the animals to the animalistic theme accessed as if in passing, passing.At the same time, such experiments are very fortunate.So, for example, Alexander Kuprin "Strider" Tolstoy created the story "Emerald."Its main character is a stallion whose image is not devoid of psychological insight: Emerald is even able to dream.
Among those authors who have written stories about animals in Soviet times, can be identified Michael Prishvina, Paustovsky, Victor Astafieva.Creativity latter is due to the ideological and stylistic direction of "village prose", which dealt with including environmental issues, to conceptualize the place of man in the world, the cosmos.
Modern authors of works about animals
Literary process in Russia in recent decades accompanied by publicity, removing censorship restrictions.This could not but affect the animalistic literature.Modern works of the authors of the animals (for example, L. Petrushevskaya) bestiarity images used not only as a means of allegory, creating allegories, referring to the social and historical realities, but also as an ordinary character's actions deprived of any similarities with humans.