Literary within.

literary trends - this is what is often identified with the school or the literary group.Means a group of creative individuals, they are characterized by software and aesthetic unity, as well as ideological and artistic affinity.In other words, a specific kind (like subgroup) literary movement.For example, a Russian romanticism, refers to the "psychological", "philosophical" and "civil" flows.The Russian literary movement scholars have identified "sociological" and "psychological" direction.


This direction and artistic style in literature and art in Europe early 19th century.The name comes from the Latin word «classicus» - perfect.

literary trends of the 19th century have their own characteristics:

1. Appeal to the forms and images of ancient art and literature as an aesthetic standard, on this basis put forward the principle of "imitation of nature", implying compliance with strict rules, which are drawn from ancient aesthetics.

2. The basis of the aesthetics of the principle of ra

tionalism (from the Latin «ratio» means the mind), the approving glances at the work of art as the creation of artificial - created things consciously, rationally organized logically constructed.

3. In the classicism in the images is not the individual features, as they are primarily designed to capture generic, stable, eventually lasting signs that serve as the embodiment of many spiritual and social forces.

4. Socio-educational function of art.Educates harmonic personality.

sentimentalism sentimentalism (in translation from English means sentimental "sensitive") - for the literature and art of the 18th century in Europe.Enlightenment rationalism prepared using the crisis in the Enlightenment is the final stage.Basically chronologically preceded Romanticism, I had to give him some of their features.

literary movement, the poetry of this period has its own characteristics:

1. sentimentalism remains faithful to the ideals of normative identity.

2. Compared with classicism and its educational pathos, the core of "human nature" declared in mind and feeling.

3. The condition of the formation of the ideal man is not considered a "competent international reconstruction", and the improvement and release of "natural feelings".

4. Literary heroes sentimentalism greater individualized: origin (or believe) they are democratic, rich spiritual world of the common people is one of the conquests of sentimentalism.

5. sentimentalism does not know about the "irrational": contradictory mood, impulsive emotional outbursts seen as judicious interpretation.


This is the most prominent literary trend in the literature of Europe and America of the late 18th - early 19th century.In this era of romantic thought all unusual, weird, strange, which is found only in books.

Romantic literature of the 19th century in Russia was characterized by:

1. Antiprosvetitelskoy direction that proyavivlyalas still in pre-Romanticism and sentimentalism and romanticism already peaked.Social and ideological preconditions can be called a disappointment in the results of the revolution and the fruits of society in general, protests against the routine, banality and prosaic bourgeois life.The reality of history is not subject to "reason", irrationality, completeness mysteries and unexpected but typical of a hostile world order the individual man and his natural freedom.

2. The overall pessimistic direction is the idea of ​​"Weltschmerz", "cosmic pessimism" (as an example, J. fictional heroes. Byron A. Vigny, etc.).Themes "terrible world that lies in evil" is particularly vividly reflected in the "drama of fate" or "tragedy of fate" (ETA Hoffmann, Poe).

3. Faith in the almighty spirit of man, in his call for a renewal.Litkratory discovered unknown complexity, depth of personality.People for them - a microcosm, a little universe.Hence went absolutisation personality began, the philosophy of individualism.Center for romantic works has always been a strong, exceptional people, as opposed to society, its moral and ethical norms and laws.


Latin for nature - the literary trends of the Silver Age, which took final shape in Europe and the United States.


1. The quest for objective, accurate and dispassionate depiction of human nature and reality, which are due to the physiological environment and nature, understood in most cases as a direct material and domestic environment.This does not prevent social and historical factors.The main objective of naturalists - the study of society with the same fullness with which naturalists study nature, art scientific knowledge be like.

2. All the works of art were regarded as "human documents", the basic aesthetic criteria considered complete and the completion by it of cognitive acts.

3. Literary abandoned moralizing, assuming that the images really quite expressive in itself.They thought that the literature as well as the sciences, are not allowed in the choice of material for writers like no unworthy or unfit those stories.Because of this in the works of that time often appeared indifferent public and plotless.

Realism Realism is called the artistic and literary during the early 20th century.Its origin takes Renaissance ("Renaissance realism"), as well as the Enlightenment ("Enlightenment realism").The first was marked by realism in medieval and ancient folklore, ancient legends.

main features of the flow:

1. The artist depicts the outside world in a manner consistent with the essence of the phenomena of the world.

2. The realism literature indicated by means of the knowledge of the person and the surrounding society.

3. Knowledge today is through images that are created because of the typing of the facts of reality ("in the typical atmosphere of a typical character").

4. realistic art serves life-affirming art, even when the tragic conflict resolution.This is the philosophical foundation - Gnosticism, credibility in the knowability and adequate reflection of the surrounding world, which is different from romanticism.

Silver Age

literary trends of the Silver Age has such features:

  • assumption of the existence of two worlds (real and otherworldly);
  • identification symbols in reality;
  • special look at the natural intuition as a mediator in the image of the world and its attainment;
  • razrabatyvanie zvukopisi as a separate poetic reception;
  • understanding of the world from the hoax;
  • diversity of content (hint, allegory);
  • quest religious kind ("religious feeling free");
  • ottritsaetsya realism.

Literature of the 19th century in Russia

origin of artistic movements in Russia is associated with social and ideological atmosphere of the life of the Russian people - a nationwide rise after the First World War.It was the beginning of not only making, but also the special nature areas Decembrist poets (for example, advocate VK Kiichelbecker, K. Ryleev AI Odoyevski), whose work was animate ideas of civil service, imbued with pathos struggle and volnolyubiya.

characteristic feature of Romanticism in Russian

most important aspect is forcing literary development in Russia in the early 19th century, which is due to "crowding" and combining the various stages, to survive in stages in other countries.Russian romanticism absorbed predromanticheskie trends along with the trends of the Enlightenment and Classicism: a doubt the role of reason in the universe, the cult of nature, sensitivity, elegiac melanholizm, combined with the classic ordering of genres and styles, moderate didacticism, as well as the fight against excess metaphor for the "harmonic accuracy".

Akhmatova for

for Akhmatova Literary apparently embellishing language summing simultaneously to rationalize, it is mere thought (since Acmeism itself tends to get rid of the congestion that prevailed in the literature of those years).

lyrical Akhmatova more mundane looking to the real life.They think in different categories.They - a woman disappointed in love who feel that they have discovered the secret: love as such does not exist.But more recently, the heroine lived with pink glasses on the eyes, all in blissful ignorance.They are also waiting for appointments, feared separation from loved ones, he sang "love songs".But it was over in a moment.Own enlightenment is not pleased with them.In verses slip line "ever since everything seems sick."Even complex encrypted messages are very clear.Every woman who was faced with the loss of love, will feel the same way.


Poetry Russian process, as well as a literary trend Mayakovsky for two decades (until 1920) were characterized by a particular richness and diversity: these years were the beginning of the origin and formation of the most modern literary groups and trends, with their history of developmentlinked flowering of creativity famous writers.Just at the turn of events unfolded career of writer Vladimir Mayakovsky.

Yesenin Yesenin knew the literature in difficult times.The imperialist war, in which Russia was involved, identified the split even more sharply.The split in the ranks of art was planned Russian intelligentsia over the past two centuries, with the deepening of the revolution in 1907.Literary Esenina for is a kind of decadent direction, to break with the traditional literature of the time progressive citizenship, his works are united under pryzvami "war to the bitter end."Also, with the support of the war in Russia were right SRs and Mensheviks, who were among the Russian intelligentsia a big impact.I supported the war, and a great poet.Meanwhile, the current literature of the Silver Age with its foundations have come to naught.Intellectuals and especially Russian Social-Democrats were unable to cement the position of literature and art, bring or push changes.

Russian Acmeism

Literary during Acmeism has elevated interest in cultural associations, it shall take a roll call of past literary era."Ubyvshey sorrows of the world culture" - so O.E.Mandelshtam subsequently identified Acmeism.The mood and motives "of exotic novels" and the tradition of Lermontov's "iron verse" at Gumilev;image of old Russian Literature Dante and psychological novels from Anna Akhmatova;Zenkevich idea of ​​natural philosophy;Mandelstam ancient world;NV Gogol's mystical world have Narbut GSSkovoroda - and that's not the whole list of cultural layers that are affected acmeists.Each of Acmeists thus had a creative originality.When N.S.Gumilev in his poetry revealed "strong personality" and works M.A.Kuzmina dormant characteristic acmeism aestheticism, the work of Anna Akhmatova and Yesenina developed more progressive, turned the already narrow limits acmeismwhich prevailed a realistic start and patriotic motives.Discovery Acmeists in the art form is still used by some contemporary poets.

literary trends of the 20th century

First of all, it is the orientation to the classic, archaic and everyday mythology;model of cyclical time;mythological bricolage - the works are constructed as a collage of reminiscences and quotations from famous works.

Literary during that time has 10 components:

1. Neomifologizm.

2. Autistizm.

3. illusion / reality.

4. Priority style over storyline.

5. The text in the text.

6. The destruction of the plot.

7. Pragmatics, not semantics.

8. syntax rather than vocabulary.

9. Observer.

10. Violation of the principles of coherence of the text.