While in Italy flourished culture and literature of the High Renaissance, and in the north of Europe, Germany and the Netherlands came to the climax of the Northern Renaissance, in the level of development of Russian art and literature was very low.
in 14-15 centuries Russian principality just started to shake from their shoulders ashes long and painful the Mongol-Tatar yoke.Not surprisingly, the literature of this time a little different from the chronicles of the Dark Ages.
Early Russian literature
Russian principalities of medieval literature mainly consists of chronicles, many of which are anonymous, and the lives of saints.The oral folk literature of medieval Russia consisted of tales and songs.Literature ages 14-15, respectively, consists of the oral tradition, chronicles and Lives.In the second half of the 15th century, it developed an interest in foreign legends and secular work.
verbal creativity (or folklore) - a collective folk art, passed from mouth to mouth.Folklore traditions and
Unlike written literature, which was monotonous and almost completely secularized, oral literature of 14-15 centuries in Russia was full of a variety of forms and genres.To have survived the works belonging to the ritual chants, epos, fairy tales, and of course, the well-known proverbs, funny and lullabies.
Epics - original genre of Russian folklore, original version of the heroic epic, which reflects the real historical achievements and the people.Epics are often supplemented with elements of fiction and exaggerates the force of heroes.
Tales - fictional stories or epics, retold in simple language and focus on a single action or feat, rich mythic characters and magic.
Historical songs - a genre of oral folklore, formalized in the 14th century and represents a rethinking of the epic.Sings the praises of important historical events and individuals associated with them.
Literature ages 14-15 has a unique form - all the works, including the massive chronicles, the monks copied by hand.Books were few, and they practically have not been circulated outside the church.
Also difficulty copying of works, literature of 14-15 centuries in Russia is practically not faced with the notion of copyright - any monk rewriting work can add or remove the part that at the time considered necessary.Thus, there is not a single work written before the mid-16th century, which would be the same in duplicate.
Many linguists and literary scholars suspect that some chronicles are the product of collective creativity.The basis of this is the linguistic and stylistic inconsistency within the same work.This applies not only chronicles but also lives of saints.
Genre consistency and emotional richness
Literature Russia 14-15 centuries and even up to 17-18 centuries, developed very conservatively.Literary traditions and conventions of writing required work in a certain genre.Therefore, stylistic and genre characteristics of products are not dramatically changed, and gradually, as if emerging from one another.That is dry and austere church literature became emotional and close to the people.
pernicious influence of the Mongol-Tatar yoke shaken to the core as a simple peasant or artisan and scholar, devout monk.In a single mourning, grief and eternal general rebellion was born the new Russian literature of 14-15 centuries, combining a dry manner of presentation chronicles the lives of rich language and images and nationality oral tradition.
legacy of the early literature
Like Christianity, writing and literature in the Russian principalities came from the outside, probably so the first record and the lives of so similar to Byzantine and so strikingly different from the folklore.While the language of the chronicles dry and difficult, folk songs, fairy tales and epic, despite the vernacular, full of vivid images and easily remembered.
Many academics and critics, especially the Slavophiles and supporters of their ideas, believe that Russian literature of modern times, including its golden age, owes its originality not only the uniqueness of the Russian soul, how strange, unexpected combinations of dry narrative, deep piety andrich imagery of ancient literature.The fact that in the 11th century there were incompatibility, as heaven and earth, in the 14-15 centuries was mixed.
early literature is the source of most of the Russian spirit.National idea, folk and original morality, all the things that distinguishes today Russian literature came from the very first centuries of its existence.That literature 14-15 centuries paved the way for the great tales of Pushkin, Gogol and incredible poems Lermontov, who, in turn, had a formative influence on the future of Russian culture.