Antique literature.

term "Ancient Literature" was first introduced by the humanists of the Renaissance, which was called as the literature of ancient Greece and Rome.The term was preserved for these countries, and has become synonymous with classical antiquity - a world that has influenced the formation of the European culture.

periodization of literature of antiquity

history of ancient literature is primarily based on the culture of ancient Greece.In this regard, there are three periods of its development.

1. The first period is called pre-classical or archaic.Literature presented oral folk art, which originated because of the religion of the Gentiles.It includes hymns, incantations, stories about gods, laments, proverbs and many other genres that are represented by folklore.The time frame of the first period can not be determined accurately.Oral genres were formed over the centuries, but the estimated time of its completion - the first third of the I millennium.

2. Antique literature of the second period takes

VII - IV century.BC.e.It is called a classic, as it coincides with the formation of the classical Greek forms of slavery.During this period there were numerous lyric and epic works, as well as prose, in which the development of the huge contribution made orators, philosophers and historians.Separately, it should be noted V century BC.e., which is called gold.The central place in the literature of this period took the theater.

3. Third, the Hellenistic period in the history of ancient literature associated with the development of slavery.With the advent of the military-monarchical form of organization of power is a sharp differentiation of human life, which is fundamentally different from the simplicity of the classical period.

This time is often interpreted as a period of degradation of literature.In it recovered the early and late stage of Hellenism, who hold period from the III century BC.e.to the V century BC.e.During this period, the first time declared itself an ancient Roman literature.

Ancient mythology

basis of ancient mythology make up stories about the ancient deities, gods-Olympians and heroes.

Legends of the ancient gods were the Greeks and Romans at a time when society was matriarchal.These gods were called chthonic or brutish.

With the onset of patriarchy gods began to be more like men.At this time, there is an image of Jupiter or Zeus - the supreme deity, who lived on Mount Olympus.It is hence the name of the gods-Olympians.In the view of the Greeks, these creatures had rigid hierarchy that justified the same order that exists in society.

heroes of ancient myths were unusual people, who appeared as a result of the link between mortals and gods-Olympians.For example, one of the most famous is Hercules - the son of Zeus and Alcmene usual.The Greeks believed that each of the characters has a special purpose: to clean the Earth from monsters, which gave rise to Gaia.

Epic

works of ancient literature in the genre of epic represented by such names as Homer and Virgil.

homer - the legendary poet, who is considered the author of the oldest surviving epic poems - "The Iliad" and "Odyssey."The sources for the creation of these works have become myths, folk songs and legends.The epic poems of Homer were written in hexameter.

Virgil - Roman poet, author of the legendary epic poem "Aeneid".In it the author extols the legendary origin of the Roman people.

lyrics and drama

One of the best-known representatives of the genre can be called lyrical poet Sappho.She used traditional folk motifs, but fed them with vivid images and powerful emotions.Widely known poetess received during his lifetime.Her work includes nine books of poetry, but to have survived only two hundred poems and lyrical passages.

Theatrical performances were one of the most popular entertainment of ancient Greece.Antique literature of the Golden Age of this trend is represented in the two main genres: tragedy and comedy.

In fact, the ancient tragedy was an opera.It is considered the founder of the ancient Greek playwright Aeschylus.He wrote more than 90 plays, but to the present time, only seven survived.One of the most famous tragedies of Aeschylus is "Prometheus Bound", whose image is still used by writers.

Antique comedy had a political dimension.For example, one of the representatives of the genre - Aristophanes - in his comedies "The World" and "Lysistrata" condemns the war between Greece and Sparta.Comedy "Riders" severely criticizes the shortcomings of democracy that prevailed in Athens.

origin of genre fiction

List of ancient literature in the genre of prose represented, above all, Plato's dialogues.The content of these works is presented through reasoning and argument between two interlocutors, who have to find the truth.The main hero of Plato's dialogues, Socrates was his teacher.This form of information is called "Socratic dialogue".

known 30 Plato's dialogues.The most famous of them is the myth of Atlantis, "Feast", "Phaedo", "Phaedrus."