term "new drama" combines a number of fundamentally new, innovative approaches to the performing arts.The works of Maeterlinck, Ibsen, Shaw created in contrast to the "well-made plays", the dominance of which was observed on the stages of Western European theaters.Masterfully twisted plot, they captivated the audience arrived to relax, but leave any significant mark on art were unable to.
As for Russian literature, then it is observed a different picture because of this remarkable phenomenon as Ostrovsky theater.However, at the turn of the century it realistic aesthetics more exhausted, replaced by a "new drama".Alexander Blok, Leonid Andreev and Maxim Gorky created her unique designs, although the change in the type of conflict, the modification of the plot there are already dramaturgy of their older contemporary, Anton Chekhov.
From vaudeville to the tragedies of everyday life
The researchers who conducted the analysis of the plays of Chekhov, isolated in his dramatic works a few periods.His
type of conflict
published in 1896, Chekhov's play "The Seagull" is fully consistent with the principles of the "new drama", primarily due to a new type of conflict.Ever since the days of Shakespeare has become a tradition, the conflict unfolds between the characters: Claudius and Hamlet, King Lear and his daughters.They weave, conspire against each other, words, actions.Chekhov's play (especially "The Seagull") can be interpreted as a struggle of generations: older represented Arkadina, Trigorin, and younger - Konstantin Treplev and Nina Zarechnaya.
But is it really?This question is indirectly responsible Chekhov himself, making comments about the "Philistines" Maxim Gorky "Just do not oppose it (the working of the Nile) Peter and Tatiana, let it alone, and they themselves ...»
This statementit is applicable to "Seagull": in fact, would interfere in some way or Trigorin ARKADINA acting career of the protagonist?Are there any objective, due to the actions of other characters reasons for Andrei Prozorov gave up science and become accustomed to the provincial life?A negative answer to these questions proves that the conflict in the "new drama" emerges not between the character and the other actors.The main antagonist in Chekhov's play stands Wall (image taken from the same works of Leonid Andreyev) Someone in Gray, fate itself, unpredictable and capricious.
Chekhov distinguished by a special construction of the plot.Fire near the manor Prozorov, the duel between Tuzenbach and salinity Trepleva suicide - all of these incidents are reported as if in passing, and, in fact, they have no influence on the course of events.
But it would be an exaggeration to say that in the plays of the dramatist is no plot as such.He goes into the subtext becomes lyrical.The most important as it is hidden from the viewer, and only occasionally makes itself felt absurd phrases (think "Tarara Bumba ..." Chebutykin) or inappropriate actions.They reveal ongoing thought process of each of the characters.However, this stream of consciousness objectified served detached, thereby allowing researchers to talk about a new type of drama - the synthetic, which combines epic and lyrical beginning.
space and time
«Flowering cherry, solid white garden ... And the ladies in white dresses" - something like Stanislavski described his new plan Chekhov.The play "The Cherry Orchard" (which it is referring to the writer) shows the importance of the landscape as a unit of the objective world of dramatic works Chekhov.Nature is animated, it is not "cast", "not heartless face," and filled with emotions of the characters, it becomes psychological.
As the time for the heroes of "The Three Sisters" and other works it stands destructive force, destroying hopes for a better life.Future in Chekhov's plays are always uncertain;writer often resorted to an open ending, so typical of the "new drama".
Heroes plays of Chekhov - people generally capable, talented.And their talent is not limited to professional activities.Where less frequent mediocrity like a teacher or professor Serebryakov Kulygina.This feature is explained Chekhov's worldview, which believed that the presence of talent - is an integral feature of every human being, the crown of the universe.In law there is a presumption of innocence.The writer would be operated by another term - the presumption of talent, according to which each of us can show tayascheesya inside talent, it would be just the right time for this.
Among the works of Strindberg, Ibsen, Shaw and Chekhov found its rightful place.They recorded a new type of conflict, which has an existential character, relevant for subsequent Russian and world literature.