Biography Marina Ivanovna Tsvetaeva.

Marina Tsvetaeva (years of life - 1892-1941) - a famous Russian poet.She was the daughter of Ivan Vladimirovich Tsvetaeva (1847-1913), scientist.For her work is characterized by romantic maximalism, the rejection of everyday life, doomed love, loneliness motives.The main collections of the poet - "Milestones" (1921), published in 1923, "craft", "After Russia" (1928).She was set up in 1925 satirical poem called "The Pied Piper", and the following - "The Poem of the end."Marina Ivanovna Tsvetaeva's biography will be considered in this article.


Tsvetaeva Tsvetaeva Marina was born on September 26 (old style - October 8), 1892 in the city of Moscow.Her father, as we have already mentioned, was a scientist who specialized in ancient history, art and epigraphy.He was the founder and first director (from 1911 to 1913), the Museum of Fine Arts.The first marriage was a very good professor, but after the birth of two children, a young wife died, and Ivan Tsvetaev re married Mary Maine.In 1892, 26 Sept

ember, there was this pair girl, who was named Marina (ie, "sea").So begins the biography of Marina Ivanovna Tsvetaeva.

mother, Maria Alexandrovna Maine, died in 1906.She was a pianist, a pupil of Rubinstein AG This woman had a huge impact on the marina.She dreamed that her daughter also became a pianist.However, the world of poetry beckoned the young Tsvetaeva more than the execution of scales.Even in the age of six girl wrote the first verse.And not only for Russian Marina creates, but also in French and German.Enough is strictly brought up daughters (Marina and her sister Anastasia) mother.They received an excellent education.Santa half-brothers and sisters - the historian and publicist Ilovajskij Dmitri Ivanovich.

Childhood future poet

Biography Marina Ivanovna Tsvetaeva in his early years, marked by the fact that she was a child because of the illness of the mother lived a long time in Germany, Switzerland and Italy.Breaks in training in the gymnasium were filled in classes in boarding schools in Freiburg and Lausanne.Marina had fluent German and French.She listened at the Sorbonne in 1909, a course in French literature.

Early independence

After the death of the mother of child care fell on the shoulders of his father.He was busy at work, so they could not devote all his time.That is why, perhaps, the girls have grown beyond his years independent, became interested early on the political situation in the country, relations with the opposite sex.

Education Marina Tsvetaeva

At the insistence of his mother at a young age Marina Tsvetaeva went to music school, and took music lessons at home.But these activities after the death of Mary had no further development.Marina and her sister received a primary education at home under the guidance of his mother.At the age of 8-9 years, the future poet attended classes at the gymnasium Bryukhonenko MT, and then in Switzerland, in Lausanne.She studied in 1903 in a Catholic boarding school, and then went after a family move into a French boarding school.Tsvetaeva continue training in Germany, Freiburg guesthouse.She easily given languages, and then it is often earned in translation because creativity does not bring more revenue this poet as Marina Tsvetaeva.Biography and poetry only after the death of her began to arouse the interest of many.

Marina went in 1908 to Paris, where he enrolled at the Sorbonne.There she listened to lectures on Old French literature.

Home literary work

Biography Marina Ivanovna Tsvetaeva begins as follows.The first literary experiences were associated with the terms of the Symbolists of Moscow.Marina met Bryusov, who had a great influence on her early poetry, as well as with the poet as Ellios (Kobylinsky Lev).She participated in the activities of clubs and studios, located at the publishing house "Musaget."Also had a major impact and poetic world of art at home (in the Crimea), the art critic and poet Maximilian Voloshin.She stayed in Koktebel many times.

first collections

In his two poetry collections "Evening Album" (1910) and "The Magic Lantern" (1912), as well as in written in 1914 poem "The Witch" thorough description of household life (portraits, mirrors, halls,child), reading, walking on the boulevard, music lessons, relationship with his sister and mother simulated diary of a young schoolgirl."Evening Album" was dedicated to the memory of Mary Bashkirtseva Konstantinovna artist that focuses diary, confessional orientation.As written in 1921, the poem "On the red horse" shape fabulous romantic ballads found the story of becoming a poet.

further work

on relations with Sophia Parnok (which we still tell) a cycle of poems "Girlfriend" appeared in 1916.During the Civil War came a cycle called "Swan Song," which was dedicated to the heroism of the white officers.There in her work and poems and romantic pieces, such as "a red horse", "Yegorushka", "Tsar Maiden".

Romancing the Rodzevich inspired the creation of collections of "Poem of the End" and "The Poem of the mountain."In Paris, there was last lifetime collection of Marina.This family moved in 1928 from the Czech Republic.Remained unpublished, however, most of her poems.Marina earned a living mainly translations and creative evenings.


biggest mystery Efron family (husband's poetess), and Tsvetaeva, what prompted them to move to the Soviet Union in 1939?A former White officer, Efron, who fought hard against the Bolsheviks suddenly believed in the triumph of communism.He got back in Paris with the NKVD controlled the company, which was engaged in the return of emigrants.In 1937, first came to Moscow Marina Tsvetaeva's daughter, Ariadne (who was arrested before all).After that Sergei Efron escaped, as it has been compromised relations with the NKVD in Paris.Marina and her son followed her husband to the end of performing the duty of loving wife.

last years Marina Ivanovna

following events completed her biography.Marina Tsvetaeva experienced the arrest of her husband and daughter in 1939, it shattered the poet.She was left alone with his son George.And the relationship with him, spoiled too rapt attention, were mixed.Very worried because of all this, in recent years, Marina Tsvetaeva.Brief biography by date last years of her life is terminated following a fatal event.August 31, 1941, after the evacuation of Yelabuga in connection with the outbreak of the Second World War, Tsvetaeva hanged herself on the Kama River, in the hall house, which has been isolated for their son.So it was not the tomb of Marina Tsvetaeva, despite the efforts made by his sister Anastasia, which was rehabilitated in 1959, and his daughter Ariadne (rehabilitated in 1955).In August 1941, he was shot in Moscow, Sergei Efron.

is a brief biography of Tsvetaeva Marina Ivanovna.

value of creativity poet

interest to us, the poet, unfortunately, when life did not wait for recognition.She had to go hungry, and recitals and collectors appreciated were not appreciated by his contemporaries.Currently, however, Tsvetaeva is rightfully one of the most prominent representatives of Russian poetry of the Silver Age.Brief biography of Tsvetaeva Marina Ivanovna and her poems are included in the school curriculum.Very popular today, her poems, many of which have become famous romances set to music.This is not only in Russia but also abroad enjoys the love and recognition of Marina Tsvetaeva.Brief biography in English Marina Ivanovna, for example, was created by many authors.In the Netherlands, in Leiden, the house is located on the wall who wrote poems Tsvetaeva (picture shown below).

Interesting facts from the life of Tsvetaeva

Life of the poet (she herself did not like that word, named himself a poet) is inseparable from her art.Therefore it is necessary to talk about a few interesting facts that have marked her life.Marina Tsvetaeva wrote his best works are in love, at the time of strong emotional experiences.

Many novels have been turbulent in the life of the marina, but only love has gone through the entire life of the poet - is Sergei Efron, who became her husband and the father of her children.

Getting them was romantic, in the Crimea, in 1911.Marina, while the budding poet, was staying here at the invitation of Maximilian Voloshin, his close friend.

Sergei Efron in Crimea came to heal after consumption, as well as recover from the mother's suicide.Already in 1912, in January, they were married.At the same time Tsvetaeva daughter Ariadne.However, despite the fact that Marina is very appreciated by her husband, 2 years after the birth of Ali (the so-called domestic Ariadne), she plunges headlong into a new romance.And this time a woman, poet and translator Parnok Sophia, fell in love with Marina Tsvetaeva.Brief biography for children, of course, it does not mention.Very painfully experienced Efron passion of his wife, but pardoned.In 1916, after many quarrels and reconciliations, Tsvetaeva finally broke up with Parnok and returned to the family.

After reconciliation with her husband in 1917, Marina gave birth to Irina, which became a disappointment to Tsvetaeva, who wanted a son.Efron took part in the movement of white, fought with the Bolsheviks, so left after the revolution Moscow and went to the south, where he participated in the defense of the Crimea.He emigrated just after Denikin's army was finally defeated.

With two children stayed Marina Tsvetaeva in Moscow.Without livelihood was the family and had to sell things to eat.However, to save the younger daughter, in spite of all efforts, the mother failed.Il died of starvation in an orphanage, where she gave Tsvetaeva, hoping that the girl will be here to eat better.

Marina during the separation from her husband survived a few more novels, but decided in 1922 to go to Sergei Efron abroad.Already connected with your spouse, Marina during a period of exile in the Czech Republic met Rodzevich, which some historians believe the real father of George, the long-awaited son, born in 1925.But officially it is Efron.Repeatedly she emphasized Marina Tsvetaeva (biography, interesting facts from the life of which we have considered), which finally gave birth to a son to her husband.Thus, it is partially redeemed their guilt, who feel after a daughter died in the post-revolutionary Moscow.

That poet Marina Tsvetaeva.Biography, interesting facts from her life, hope, causes a desire in the reader to continue the acquaintance with this bright representative of the poetry of the Silver Age.We recommend you read her poems.Really talented works created Tsvetaeva Marina.Brief biography (what is called the Silver Age, hope you remember) was created in order to generate interest in her work.