Analysis of "Dead Souls".

"Dead Souls" - the main product of Nikolai Gogol, not only the scale and depth of artistic generalizations.For this author work on it began a long process of the writer and human self-knowledge.Analysis of "Dead Souls" will be presented in this article.

Gogol remarked after the publication of the first volume that the main subject of his works - not ugly landowners and the province, and the "mystery" that suddenly was open to readers in the following volumes.

"Pale beginning of the" grand design

quest genre, changing the design work on the text of the first two volumes, as well as the consideration of the third - are fragments of a grand "construction", carried out by Nikolai Vasilyevich only partially.Through the analysis of "Dead Souls", it is understood that the first volume - this is only a part in which the outlines of a scheduled.This is the "beginning of the pale" of labor, to identify the writer.No wonder Nikolai compared him to the porch, to attach to a quick "palace" provincial architec


How did the plan work?

Features composition and subject, the peculiarity of the genre associated with the deepening and development of the original idea of ​​"Dead Souls".At the root of the product was Pushkin.In the words of Nikolai, the poet advised him to take up the great work, and even suggested a plot from which he wanted to create "something like a poem."However, not so much the story, how many prisoners it "thought" was a "hint" of Pushkin Gogol.Well known were the future of real-life stories the author of the poem, which is based on fraud with so-called "dead souls".As a youth, Gogol in Myrhorod there was one of these cases.

"Dead Souls" by Gogol in Russian times

"Dead Souls" - serfs who died, but continued to be registered until the next live "register-tale."Only after this they were officially dead.It was after the "register-tale" landlords stopped paying the poll tax for them - a special tax.Existing paper peasants could be pledged, donated or sold than scammers sometimes used by seducing landlords not only the opportunity to get rid of the serfs do not generate revenue, but also to get money for them.

Buyer "dead souls" thus became the owner of the state's real.The adventure of the protagonist works Chichikov - a consequence of "Inspirational Thought", in the autumn it - the board of trustees will for each serf for 200 rubles.

adventurous picaresque novel

basis for the so-called picaresque adventure-giving "anecdote" with "dead souls".This type of novel has always been very popular because different entertaining.Senior contemporaries of Gogol created works in this genre (VT Narezhny, FV Bulgarin, etc.).Their novels, despite the rather low artistic level, thus had great success.

Modification adventure-genre picaresque novel in the process

Conversation model we are interested in the work - this is the adventure-picaresque novel, as the analysis of "Dead Souls".It is, however, highly evolved in the course of work on this writer's creation.Indicates that, for example, the copyright symbol "poem", which appeared after the general plan and the main idea of ​​adjusted Gogol ("Dead Souls").

analysis of the product reveals the following interesting features."All Russia will be in it" - Gogol's thesis, which not only stressed the enormity of design "Dead Souls" from the original desire "although one side" to show Russia, but at the same time meant a radical revision of the genre model, selected earlier.Nikolai Vasilyevich became close beyond the traditional adventure-picaresque novel because it could not accommodate the wealth of the new plan.Only one of the ways of seeing Russia become "Odyssey" Chichikov.

adventurous picaresque novel, lost the leading role in "Dead Souls", was coated with the genre for the epic poem of trends and character study.

Features image of Chichikov

One of the techniques used in this genre - the mystery of the origin of the hero.The main character was a man of the first chapters of the common people, a foundling, and the end of the work, overcoming obstacles in life, he found himself suddenly the son of wealthy parents, has received an inheritance.Resolutely refused to Nikolai from the template.

Analyzing the poem "Dead Souls", it should definitely be noted that Chichikov is a man of "the middle."The author says about him that he is "not a bad-looking," but not handsome, not too thin and not too thick, not too old and not too young.The reader is hidden story of the life of an adventurer down to the final, eleventh chapter.In this you are sure to carefully read "Dead Souls".Analysis by chapter reveals the fact that the background of the author tells only eleventh.Having decided to do it, Gogol begins by underscoring the "vulgarity", the ordinariness of his hero.He writes that the "modest" and "dark" its origin.Nikolai again rejects the extremes in determining your character (not a scoundrel, but not a hero), but stops at the main as Chichikov - a "purchaser", "boss".

Chichikov - the "average" person

this character, so nothing unusual there - so-called "average" person, which strengthened Gogol line, many people tend to.Nikolai sees change the rest of his passion for profit, in pursuit of the ghost light and a beautiful life manifestation of "human poverty", poverty goals in life and spiritual interests - all that many people so carefully hidden.Analysis of "Dead Souls" shows that Gogol took the biography of the hero is not so much to reveal at the end of the work, "the secret" of his life, as to remind readers that this is not an exceptional person, and quite ordinary.Anyone can detect a certain "part of Chichikov."

"positive" heroes works

in adventure-story traditional picaresque novel "spring" is a malicious prosecution, greedy and vicious people of the protagonist.Who fought for their rights in the crook of their background seemed almost a "model of excellence".As a rule, he was helped by compassionate and virtuous people, naively expressing the ideals of the author.

But Chichikov in the first volume of the work no one pursues.Also, there is no character in the novel, which could at least to some extent, be followers of the point of view of the writer.Analyzing the works of "Dead Souls", we can see that only in the second volume there are "positive" heroes Kostanzhoglo landowner, farmer Murazov irreconcilably different officials to abuse the governor.But these unusual for Nikolai characters are very far from novel template.

Nikolai What interests first?

contrived, artificial stories were many works written in the genre of adventure-picaresque novel.The focus is on the adventures of "adventures" heroic rogues.And Nikolai are not interested in the adventures of the protagonist of themselves, not their "material" result (Chichikov eventually got the same condition fraudulently) and their moral and social content, which allowed the author to make fake "mirror" reflecting modern Russiain the product's "Dead Souls".Analysis shows that this is a country of landlords who are selling "air" (ie dead peasants), as well as officials who provide assistance to the fraudster instead of hinder it.A huge semantic potential of this product has a story - it is based on the real overlap different layers of other meanings - symbolic and philosophical.It is very interesting to analyze the landlords ("Dead Souls").Each of the five characters is very symbolic - in their portrayal of Nikolai uses grotesque.

Slow motion plot

Gogol deliberately slows the movement of the plot, each event is accompanied by detailed descriptions of the material world in which the characters live, as well as their appearance, reasoning about their human qualities.Not only the dynamics, but also the significance of losing the picaresque adventure-story.Each event works is "avalanche" copyright estimates and judgments, details, facts.The novel is contrary to the requirements of the genre almost completely stopped in the last chapters.This can be seen, make their own analysis of Gogol's "Dead Souls".For the development of actions have meaning only two events from all others that take place from the seventh to the eleventh chapter.This departure from Chichikov and registration of their deed.

Insistence to readers

Nikolai readers is very demanding - he wants them to penetrate into the essence of phenomena, and not slipping on the surface, they pondered over the hidden meaning of works of "Dead Souls".It should analyze very carefully.It is necessary to see beyond the "subject" or the informative value of the author's words are not clear, but the most important - symbolically generalized.It is also necessary, as in Pushkin's "Eugene Onegin", co-creation of readers to the author of "Dead Souls".Importantly, the artistic effect of Gogol's prose is created not by what is told what is portrayed and how it is done.You see it, having once analysis of work "Dead Souls".The word is a delicate instrument, which was a master Gogol.

Nikolai emphasized that the writer, referring to the people, must take into account the uncertainty and fear of living in those who commit bad deeds.And approval, and must bear the reproach word "lyric poet."Arguments about the dual nature of the phenomena of life - a favorite theme of the author's works of interest to us.

This is a brief analysis ("Dead Souls").On the product of Gogol is a lot to say.We have identified only the main points.It is also interesting to dwell on the images of landlords and owners.You can do this on their own, based on our analysis.