"Fathers and Sons", the story of creation which is usually associated with the product "Rudin", published in 1855 - a novel in which Ivan Turgenev returned to the structure of his first creations.
like it, in "Fathers and Sons" all the story strands came together in one center, which formed the figure of Bazarov - plebeian Democrat.She disturb all the critics and readers.Many have written various critics of the novel "Fathers and Sons", since the product has caused great interest and controversy.Key positions in relation to this novel, we will present to you in this article.
Bazarov meaningful way in understanding the work
Bazarov became not only the center of the plot works, but also problematic.From his understanding of the fate and identity depended largely assessment of all the other sides of Turgenev's novel: the author's position, of the characters, various artistic techniques used in the work, "Fathers and Sons."According to the heads of critics considered the novel and saw in it a new t
What scolded Turgenev?
ambivalence of the author to his hero entailed censure and reproaches his contemporaries.Turgenev brutally abused from all sides.Critics of the novel "Fathers and Sons" spoke mostly negative.Many readers could not understand the idea of the author.From the memoirs of Annenkov, and of Ivan Sergeyevich, we learn that the MNKatkov was indignant, reading the manuscript of "Fathers and Sons" by chapter.He resented the fact that the protagonist of the work reigns supreme and is not found anywhere sensible resistance.Readers and critics opposing camp is also severely censured Ivan Sergeyevich for the internal dispute that he had with Bazarov in his novel "Fathers and Sons."Its content seemed to him not quite democratic.
Most notable among many other interpretations are paper MAAntonovich, published in "Contemporary" ("Asmodeus our time"), as well as a series of articles that appeared in the magazine "Russian word" (Democratic), owned feather DIPisarev: "Thinking the proletariat," "realists", "bazaar".These critics of the novel "Fathers and Sons" presented two opposing views.
Pisarev's opinion about the main character
Unlike Antonovich, who assessed very negatively Bazarov, Pisarev saw him in this "hero of time."This critic has compared this figure with the "new people" depicted in the novel "What?"NGChernyshevsky.
theme "Fathers and Sons" (the relationship of generations) in his articles came to the fore.Expressed by the representatives of the democratic direction of the divergent views of Turgenev's works were perceived as a "split in the nihilists" - the fact of internal controversy that existed in the democratic movement.
Antonovich of Bazarov
readers and critics of "Fathers and Sons" disturbed no accident two questions about the author and the position of the prototype images of the novel.They constitute the two poles, which is interpreted and perceived any work.Convinced Antonovich, Turgenev was ill-intentioned.The interpretation of Bazarov presented this critic, this image is not written off "from life" person, and the "evil spirit", "Asmodeus", which is released on a new generation of angry writer.
sustained manner in feuilletonistic article Antonovich.The critic rather than to provide an objective analysis of the works created at the hero cartoon, substituting Sitnikov, "student" Bazarov, the place of his teacher.Bazarov, according Antonovich is not an artistic generalization, not a mirror, which reflects the younger generation.Critics say that the author of the novel has created a biting satirical article, which should argue in the same manner.The purpose Antonovich - "quarrel" with the younger generation of Turgenev - has been achieved.
Why could not forgive Turgenev Democrats?
Antonovich in the subtext of his unjust and rough article reproached the author that he has turned out a figure that is too "recognized" as one of the prototypes it is considered Dob.Journalists "Contemporary", moreover, the author simply could not break with the magazine.The novel "Fathers and Sons" was published in the "Russian Gazette", a conservative publication that was for them a sign of Ivan Sergeyevich final break with democracy.
Bazaar in "real criticism"
Pisarev has expressed a different point of view about the main character of the work.He considered it not as a caricature of some individuals, as well as a representative of the emerging while new social and ideological type.This criticism is the least interested in the attitude of the author to his hero, as well as various characteristics of the way of artistic expression.Pisarev Bazarov interpreted in the spirit of the so-called real criticism.He pointed out that the author in his portrayal was biased, but the very type of Pisarev was rated highly - as a "hero of time."In an article titled "Bazaar" stated that depicted in the novel, the main character, represented as a "tragic face" - a new type, which is not enough literature.The further interpretation of the criticism Bazarov broke away more and more from the novel.For example, in the articles "The thinking proletariat" and "realists" in the name of "market" was named the type era raznochinets-bearers, in outlook is close to Pisarev.
Accusations of bias
objective, calm tone of Turgenev in the image of the protagonist contradict accusations of bias."Fathers and Sons" - a kind of Turgenev's "duel" with the nihilists and nihilism, but the author has complied with all the requirements of the "code of honor": he will respect the opponent, in a fair fight, "killing" him.Bazarov as a symbol of dangerous misconceptions, according to Ivan Sergeyevich, is a worthy opponent.Mockery and caricature in which the author was accused by some critics, they were not used, as they could give a completely opposite effect, namely underestimating the forces of nihilism, is devastating.Nihilists sought to put in place their lzhekumirov "eternal."Turgenev, recalling his work on the way Yevgeny Bazarov wrote MESaltykov-Shchedrin in 1876 for the novel "Fathers and Sons", which is interested in the history of creation of many that it is not surprising why for the majority of readers of this character remains a mystery because the author can not quite imagine how to write it.Turgenev said that he knew only one thing: it was not in it then no trend, no bias thoughts.
position of Turgenev
Critics of the novel "Fathers and Sons" spoke mostly one-sided, give harsh assessments.Meanwhile, Turgenev, as in previous novels, avoids comment does findings deliberately hides the inner world of his hero, in order not to put pressure on the readers.The conflict of the novel "Fathers and Sons" is not on the surface.Such straightforward to interpret the critic Antonovich and Pisarev completely ignored the author's position is shown in the composition of the plot, in the nature of conflicts.That they implemented the concept of fate Bazarov, author of the work submitted, "Fathers and Sons", the images of which are still controversial various researchers.
Eugene in disputes with Pavel Petrovich unmoved, but after arduous "love test" internally broken.The author emphasizes the "cruelty", intelligent opinions of this hero, and the relationship between all the components that make up his world.Bazarov - a maximalist, according to the price of which has any belief, if it does not conflict with others.As soon as this character losing one "link" in the "chain" world - have been reassessed and challenged all the others.In the final, it's a "new" market, which is a "Hamlet" among the nihilists.