Metaphor in literature - is a hidden comparison.

metaphor is an expression or a word in a figurative sense, which is based on the phenomenon or object that has the similarity with him.To say in simple words, one word is replaced by another, having to him like a sign.Metaphor in literature - is one of the oldest artistic techniques.

What is a metaphor

metaphor consists of 4 parts:

  1. Context - finished piece of text that brings together the sense of belonging to a single word or sentence.
  2. object.
  3. process by which the function is executed.
  4. application of this process and its intersection with any situations.

concept metaphor opened Aristotle.Thanks to him, now it was formed opinion as a necessary accessory language can achieve educational and other goals.

ancient philosophers believed that the metaphor is given to us by nature itself and are so firmly established in everyday speech, that many of the concepts are not required to name literally and its use adds to the lack of words.But after they had pinned on it as an additional application t

o the mechanism of language, and not to its basic form.It was believed that science it even harmful, because leads to a deadlock in the search for truth.Despite all continued to exist a metaphor in literature, as it is necessary for its development.To a large extent it was used in poetry.

only in the 20th century metaphor finally been recognized as an integral part of the speech, and scientific research and its use began to be produced in a new dimension.This was facilitated by a property it as the ability to combine materials of different nature.What is a metaphor in literature, it was clear when we saw that the extended use of this artistic technique leads to riddles, proverbs, allegories.

Construction metaphor

metaphor created from 4 components: the two groups and the properties of each of them.Signs of a group offered to another group.If a person is called a lion, then it suggests that he is endowed with similar characteristics.This creates a new image, where the word "lion" in a figurative sense means "fearless and powerful."

Metaphors are specific to different languages.If Russian "donkey" symbolizes the stupidity and obstinacy, the Spaniards - diligence.Metaphor in literature - a concept which may differ among different peoples, which should be considered when translating from one language to another.

functions metaphors

main function of metaphor is a vivid emotional assessment and figurative expressive painting speech.Thus from malosopostavimyh objects are created rich and intensive images.

Other nominative function, which consists in filling the language phraseological and lexical structures, such as: bottle neck bend of the river, pansies .

Besides the main metaphor performs many other functions.This concept is much broader and richer than it seems at first glance.

What are metaphors

Since ancient times, the metaphors are divided into the following types:

  1. cutting - connecting concepts that lie in different planes, "I'm going around the city, shot eyes ...".
  2. erased - which became so popularized that figurative character is not seen ('In the morning dragged me people »).It has become so familiar that it is difficult to catch the figurative meaning.It is found when translating from one language to another.
  3. Metaphor-formula - eliminated its transformation in the literal sense (the worm of doubt, the wheel of fortune).It has long been a stereotype.
  4. Unfolded - contains a message in a logical sequence.
  5. Realized - used for its intended purpose (« came a , and then again a dead end").

What is a metaphor in literature?

difficult to imagine modern life without metaphors and comparisons.The most common metaphor in literature.It is necessary for the disclosure of the bright images and the essence of things.In poetry, especially effective metaphor deployed species represented in the following ways:

  1. indirect connection with the use of figurative expressions or stories using comparisons.
  2. of speech using words in a figurative sense, based on analogy, similarity and comparison.

unfolded metaphor consistently revealed a text fragment: « drizzle at dawn dawn washes », « Gives New Moon Dreams ».

Some classics thought that metaphor in literature - is a separate phenomenon that takes on new meaning due to its occurrence.In this case, it becomes the aim of the author, where metaphor takes the reader to a new sense, an unexpected value.Such metaphors from literature can be found in the works of the classics.Take, for nose, acquiring a metaphorical meaning in the story of Gogol.Rich in metaphor works of Shakespeare, where they attach to the heroes and events new meaning.On this basis, we can say that is not complete is a common definition.The metaphor in literature is broader and not just decorate it, but often gives it a new meaning.


What is a metaphor in literature?It effectively acts on the consciousness through the emotional coloring and imagery.This is especially evident in the poetry.The impact of metaphor is so strong that these psychologists use to solve the problems associated with mental patients.

metaphor used when creating advertisements.They awaken the imagination and help consumers make the right choice.Such manipulation of the individual and society is also carried out in the political sphere.

metaphor more and more into everyday life, manifesting itself in language, thought and action.Its study expands, covering new areas of knowledge.In the images created metaphors to judge the effectiveness of a media.