word "grotesque" derives from the French term meaning "comic", "funny", "fanciful", "bizarre".It is the oldest reception in the literature, which, like hyperbole, is based on exaggeration, sharpening qualities of people, as well as the properties of natural phenomena, objects, facts of social life.But grotesque exaggeration has a special character: it is fantastic, which is fully displayed depicts not only beyond the so-called life-like, but acceptable, from the perspective of a possible credibility.An indispensable condition for which there is a grotesque (examples we will still present) - this is a fantastic distortion of the existing reality.
emergence of the term The term appeared in the 15th century to refer to the type of artistic imagery, is very unusual.In one of the caves of ancient Rome during the excavations it was found interesting and original decoration, which is fantastically intertwined various human, animal and plant forms.
Where to use the grotesque?
Along with hyperbole, is wi
writers to create characters based on the grotesque, is used as an artistic convention exaggeration.At the same time it can be realistically justified (for example, in the description Khlestakov Petersburg life, which is the result of the passion of the hero to lie).In the works of Lermontov, this method is used for a romantic image of events and characters.It is based on best though, but exceptional.Blurring the boundaries between the real and the fantastic, but they do not disappear.
impossible, unthinkable, but the author needed to achieve a certain artistic effect is the basis of the grotesque.It's so fantastic hyperbole as usual exaggeration is closer to reality, while the grotesque - a nightmarish dream, where exciting imagination Dreamscapes defy logical explanation can be terrifying "reality" for the people.Related to the emergence of grotesque imagery with a complex mechanism that has the human psyche.It interact unconscious and conscious.Based on exaggerating the images that so impressed us in the works created by domestic writers, no wonder there is often the characters in dreams.It is very often used grotesque.Examples in the literature include the following: that the dreams of Tatyana Larina and Raskolnikov.
fantastic elements and Raskolnikov's dreams Larina
Dream Tatyana Larina (the product of "Eugene Onegin", the fifth chapter) is filled with images of monsters, which are grotesque.With horror, says the heroine in a squalid shack fantastic dance, in an image which uses the grotesque.Examples: "skull on the goose neck", "cancer is riding on the spider", "squatting dances" mill.
In Raskolnikov's dream, is also fantastic, Snickerfang generated image of an old woman, who can also be attributed to the grotesque.The psychological equivalent of truth are crazy vision of the hero: his fight against evil, which is embodied in the image was "pernicious old woman" in the end turned out to be just absurd struggle, like the one that carried out the windmills Don Quixote.Only evil laughs wildly over Raskolnikov.What he craves frantic to kill him, so grows more and more to it himself.
Connection with realistic images, situations, events
created by various authors on the basis of the grotesque images of art seem to us absolutely absurd, improbable from the standpoint of common sense.Emotionally expressive, striking their effect is often enhanced by the fact that this interacts with realistic imagery, it is normal, plausible events, situations.
realistic elements in dreams Larina and Raskolnikov
elements of reality in both these works is grotesque, and not only in them: examples from the literature, presented the works of other authors also demonstrate the presence of two elements in it (the fantastic and realistic).For example, in a nightmare, has dreamed Tatyana, characters appear along with scary monsters, easily recognizable Lensky and Onegin.
In the dream hero Raskolnikov's motivation and the grotesque image of the situation of the episode, which depicted laughing old woman, is quite real.It's just a dream-memories of the main character of a perfect murder them.Nothing fancy is not the ax and the offender.
Using grotesque satirical writer
widely used combination of ordinary and everyday social situations with grotesque imagery of various satirical writer.Thus, images of the city Glupov mayors, one of whom "organ is" instead of brains, and the other on the shoulders stuffed head, were created in the "History of a City" Saltykov-Shchedrin.
This story is filled with more and some grotesque, unbelievable situations (wars against those who refused to use mustard; "War of enlightenment" and so on. N.).All of them brought the author to the absurd, but to portray Russia is quite normal conflicts and contradictions between the people and samodurnoy power.
We talked briefly about what is grotesque.Examples of literature can lead others.They are quite numerous.Thus, a very popular phenomenon - the grotesque.The examples in the Russian language can be supplemented with works of foreign authors as well as in their work the artistic technique used very actively.