In this article, we describe the life and work of Dostoevsky briefly tell you about the most important events.Fyodor Mikhailovich was born on October 30 (old style - 11) in 1821.Essay Dostoevsky introduces you to the main works and achievements of this man in the literary field.But let's start from the very beginning - from the origin of the future writer, his biography.
Problems of Dostoevsky's work can be deeply understood only become acquainted with the life of this man.After all, fiction is always somehow displays features biographies creators.In the case of Dostoevsky is particularly noticeable.
Father Fyodor was born from the branch Rtishchevo, descendants Rtishchev Daniel Ivanovich defender in the South-West of Russia the Orthodox faith.He bestowed for outstanding achievements Dostoevo village, located in Podolsk province.Last Dostoevsky originates from there.
However, by the early 19th century, impoverished kind of Dostoyevsky.Andrei Mikhailovich, the grandfather of t
Where born Fyodor Mikhailovich?
apartment family future writer was in the right wing of the hospital.In it, a government apartment designated physician, was born in 1821, Fyodor Mikhailovich.His mother, as we have already mentioned, came from a kind of merchants.Pictures of premature deaths, poverty, disease, insecurity - the boy's first impressions, which took shape under the influence of view of the world of the future writer, very unusual.Dostoevsky's work reflects this.
situation in the family of the future writer
grown up over time, up to 9 people the family was forced to huddle in only two rooms.Mikhail was a hypochondriac and quick-tempered man.
completely different warehouse was Maria Fedorovna: thrifty, cheerful, kind.In the boy's parents relationship built on the subordination of the whims and wishes of his father.Nurse and mother of the future writer revered holy religious traditions of the country, educating in respect for the faith of the fathers of future generations.Maria Feodorovna died young - at the age of 36 years.She was buried at Lazarevskoye cemetery.
first acquaintance with the literature
Education and Science paid a lot of time in the Dostoevsky family.Back in the early Dostoevsky discovered the joy of fellowship with the book.The earliest works, with whom he became acquainted - folk tales Arina Arhipovna, Nanny.This was followed by Pushkin and Zhukovsky - favorite writers Maria Feodorovna.
Fyodor early acquaintance with the major classics of world literature: Hugo, Cervantes and Homer.His father arranged for the family in the evenings reading the works of NM Karamzin "History of the Russian state."All this instilled in future writer early interest in literature.Life and Works of Fyodor Dostoevsky is largely shaped by the media, this writer came from.
Mikhail seeking hereditary nobility
Mikhail in 1827 for the hard and excellent service was awarded the Order of the 3rd degree of St. Anne, and a year later was also awarded the rank of collegiate assessor, Davao while human rights at thehereditary nobility.The father of the future writer was well aware of the value of higher education and sought so earnestly to prepare for admission to schools of their children.
tragedy of childhood Dostoevsky
future writer in his youth survived the tragedy left an indelible mark in his mind for a lifetime.He loved the children's sense of sincere daughter cooks, nine-year girl.Once, on a summer day there was a cry in the garden.Fedor ran outside and saw her lying in tattered white dress on the ground.Above the girl bent woman.From their conversation Fedor realized that the culprit of the tragedy became a drunken tramp.After that we went to his father, but his assistance was not needed, because the girl has died.
writer Fyodor Mikhailovich received his early education in a private school in Moscow.He enrolled in 1838 in Petersburg in the Main Engineering School.He graduated in 1843 and became a military engineer.
In those years, the school is considered one of the best in the country schools.There is no accident happened to many famous people.Among fellow Dostoevsky for school was a lot of talent, later turned into celebrities.It Dmitry Grigorovich (writer), Konstantin Trutovsky (artist), Ilya section (physiologist), Eduard Totleben (organizer of the defense of Sevastopol), Fyodor Radetzky (the hero of Shipka).Taught here as a humanitarian and special disciplines.For example, world and national history, Russian literature, painting and civil architecture.
tragedy of the "little man"
Dostoevsky bustling community of students preferred solitude.Reading was his favorite pastime.Erudition future writer was amazing mates.But the desire for solitude and seclusion in his character was not an innate trait.The school Fyodor had to endure the tragedy of the soul of so-called "little man."Indeed, in this school the students were mostly children bureaucratic and military bureaucracy.Parents gifts to their teachers, sparing no means.In this environment, Dostoevsky looked strange, often subjected to insults and ridicule.In his mind during these years flared sense of wounded pride, which is reflected in the future work of Dostoevsky.
But despite these difficulties, Fyodor Mikhailovich managed to achieve recognition and companions and teachers.All have seen over time that this exceptional man of mind and outstanding abilities.
father's death in 1839, July 8, from apoplexy died father Fyodor.It was rumored that it was not a natural death - he was killed by the men of the temper.The news shocked Dostoevsky, and with him the first time had a seizure, a harbinger of the future of epilepsy from which Dostoevsky suffered all his life.
service as an engineer, first works
Dostoevsky in 1843, after graduating from the course, he was enlisted in the Corps of Engineers in the service engineering team at St. Petersburg, but not for long served there.A year later he decided to engage in literary work, a passion which had for a long time.First he began to translate the classics, such as Balzac.After some time, the idea for the novel in letters under the name of "Poor People."It was the first independent work, which begins Dostoevsky's work.This was followed by stories and novels: "Mr. Prokharchin", "Double", "Netochka Nezvanova", "White Nights".
Convergence Circle Petrashevists, tragic consequences
1847 marked rapprochement with Butashevich-Petrashevsky, who led the famous "Friday".It was the promoter and fan of Fourier.On these evenings the writer met with poets Apollon Maikov, Alexei Pleshcheev, Alexander Palme, Sergei Durov, as well as novelist Saltykov and scientist Vladimir Milyutin and Nicholas Mordvinov.At the meetings were discussed Petrashevists socialist doctrines, plans revolutionary upheavals.Dostoevsky was a supporter of the immediate abolition of serfdom in Russia.
However, the government learned of the circle, and in 1849, 37 participants, including Dostoevsky, were imprisoned in the Peter and Paul Fortress.They were sentenced to death, but the emperor commuted his sentence, and the writer was exiled to hard labor in Siberia.
in Tobolsk, in prison
He went to Tobolsk on the terrible frost on the open sleigh.Here, the wife of the Decembrists, Annenkov and Fonvizin visited Petrashevists.Fought these women admired the whole country.They gave each sentenced according to the Gospel, in which the money was invested.The fact that prisoners are not allowed to have their savings, so this is mitigated for some time severe living conditions.
In prison the writer realized how far rationalist, speculative ideas of a "new Christianity" from a sense of Christ, whose support - the people.Dostoevsky here issued a new "creed".The basis of it is the people's type of Christianity.Subsequently, this reflected the continued creativity of Dostoevsky, which we'll tell you later.
Military Service in Omsk
writer for a four-year hard labor changed over time military service.He escorted under guard from Omsk to the city of Semipalatinsk.Here the life and work of Dostoevsky continued.The writer served in the position of the ordinary, then received the rank of officer.He returned to St. Petersburg until the end of 1859.
Publishing of journals
At this time began a spiritual search for Dostoevsky, who in the 60s was completed formation pochvennicheskih opinion writer.Biography and Dostoevsky's work at this time marked by the following events.Writer since 1861, together with Michael, his brother, began to publish a magazine called "Time", and then ban it - "Epoch".Working on new books and magazines, Fyodor Mikhailovich developed his own view of the problem of public figure and writer in our country - a Russian, a sort of Christian version of socialism.
first writer's works after hard labor
Life and work of Dostoevsky after Tobolsk have changed a lot.In 1861 there was the first novel of this writer that he created after the hard labor.In this work ("The Insulted and Injured") was reflected in compassion Dostoevsky "little people" who are exposed by the powerful perpetual humiliation.Acquired great social significance as "House of the Dead" (the years of creation - 1861-1863), which had begun a writer still in prison.In the magazine "Time" in 1863 appeared "Winter Notes on Summer Impressions".They Fyodor criticized Western system of political beliefs.In 1864 came the publication of "Notes from the Underground".This kind of confession Dostoevsky.In his work, he renounced his former their ideals.
briefly describe the other works of this writer.In 1866 he appeared a novel called "Crime and Punishment", which is considered one of the most important in his work.In 1868 came "The Idiot", a novel which was an attempt to create a positive hero, who is opposed to predatory, cruel world.In the 70 years of creativity FMDostoevsky continues.They became widely known novels such as "The Possessed" (the year of publication - 1871), and "Teenager", which appeared in 1879."The Brothers Karamazov" - a novel that was the final product.He summed up Dostoevsky.Years novel - 1879-1880.In this work the protagonist, Alyosha Karamazov, helping others in times of trouble and suffering, make sure that the most important thing in our lives - a sense of love and forgiveness.In 1881, February 9, Fyodor Dostoevsky died in St. Petersburg.
Life and work of Dostoevsky briefly described in this article.We can not say that the writer is always more interested in the rest of the problem of man.We write about this important feature that was Dostoevsky's work, briefly.
man in the writer Fyodor
throughout his career pondering the basic problem of humanity - how to overcome pride, which is the main source separation of people.Of course, there are other topics of Dostoevsky, but it was largely based on this.The writer believed that any of us has the ability to create.And he must do it while living, you need to express yourself.Theme Man writer dedicated his whole life.Biography and Dostoevsky's work this out.