Anna Akhmatova, the life and work which we present to you - is a literary pseudonym, who signs his poems AA Gorenko.This poet was born in 1889, 11 (23) June near Odessa.Her family soon moved to Tsarskoye Selo, where up to 16 years, Akhmatova lived.Creativity (briefly) that the poet will be presented after the biography.First get acquainted with the life of Anna Gorenko.
Early Years Early Years
were not rosy for Akhmatova.Her parents split up in 1905.The mother was taken to Yevpatoria daughters with tuberculosis.Here for the first time faced with a life of gross foreign and dirtiest cities "wild girl".She also experienced love drama, attempted to commit suicide.
Education in Kiev and Tsarskoselskaya gymnasiums
early youth of the poet was awarded studies in Kiev and Tsarskoye Selo school.The last class, she was held in Kiev.After that, the future poet studied law in Kiev, as well as philology at St. Petersburg, the University for Women.In Kiev, she learned Latin, which allowed later to learn the
first poems and publishing
first poems, which has significantly influenced Derzhavina young schoolgirl Gorenko written when she was only 11 years old.In 1907 came the first publication.
In 1910, from their very beginning, Akhmatova begins regularly printed in Moscow and St. Petersburg editions.Once created "Guild of Poets" (1911), a literary association, she performs the duties of the secretary there.
marriage, a trip to Europe
Akhmatova in the period from 1910 to 1918 was married, NSGumilyov, also known Russian poet.With him she had met while studying at the Tsarskoye Selo school.Then Akhmatova made a trip to Paris in the years 1910-1912, where he became friends with Amedeo Modigliani, Italian artist who created her portrait.Also, at the same time, she visited Italy.
Appearance of Akhmatova
Gumilev introduced his wife to the literary and artistic environment, where the name has acquired its early importance.Not only the poetic manner of Akhmatova became popular, but also its appearance.Akhmatova struck contemporaries majesty, regal.She provided courtesies as queen.Outside of the poet inspired by Modigliani not only, but also to such artists as Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin, A. Altman, Z. Serebryakov, Tyshler A., N. Tyrsa A. Danko (below presents the work of Petrov-Vodkin).
first collection of poems, and the birth of a son
In 1912, a landmark for the poet, happened in her life, two important events.It turns out the first collection of poems Akhmatova called "Evening," which marked her work.Akhmatova also bore a son, the future historian Lev Nikolayevich Gumilyov - an important event in his personal life.
Included in the first collection of poems plastic figures used in them are clear of the composition.They forced Russian critics say that in poetry, a new talent.Although the "teachers" are such masters Akhmatova symbolist as Alexander Blok and JF Ann, her poetry was perceived from the outset as a Acmeist.In fact, along with OEMandelshtama and NSGumilev poet in the early 1910's, it was the core of this came at a time of a new trend in poetry.
subsequent two collections, the decision to stay in Russia
followed the first collector and the second book titled "FINE" (1914), and three years later, in September 1917, was a collection of "White Flock", the third in her work.The October Revolution has not forced to emigrate to the poet, though at this time there was a mass emigration.Russia abandoned one after the other people close Akhmatova A. Lurie, Antrep B. and O. Glebova-Studeykina, her friend of youth.However, the poet decided to stay in the "sinful" and "deaf" Russian.A sense of responsibility to his country, ties to the land and the Russian language has prompted Akhmatova enter into dialogue with it have decided to leave.For years, those who left Russia continued to justify his emigration to Akhmatova.With it argues, in particular, R. Hull, turning to Akhmatova Frank B. and G. Adamovich.
difficult time for Anna Akhmatova
At that time, her life changed dramatically, reflecting her work.Akhmatova worked in the library at the Institute of Agronomy, in the early 1920s managed to publish two collections of verse.These were the "Plantain", released in 1921, and "Anno Domini" (in translation - "In the year of the Lord", released in 1922).For 18 years after that did not appear in print her works.Various reasons for this exist: on the one hand, the shooting is NSGumilev, her ex-husband, who was accused of involvement in a conspiracy against the revolution;the other - the rejection of creativity poet Soviet criticism.Akhmatova a lot during this enforced silence was engaged in the work of Alexander Pushkin.
Changing your "voice" and "handwriting" Akhmatova linked to the mid 1920s, with a visit in 1922, in May, Optina and talk with the elders of nectar.Perhaps this conversation greatly influenced the poet.Akhmatova was maternal kinship with Alexander Motovilov is worldly novice Seraphim of Sarov.She took over generations the idea of redemption, sacrifice.
The fate of Akhmatova fracture was also associated with the personality of Vladimir Shileiko, who became her second husband.It was the scientist-orientalist, who was involved in the culture of these ancient countries, such as Babylon, Assyria, Egypt.Life helpless in this life and despotic man did not work, but the influence of his poet in his work attributed to the increase in low-key philosophical notes.
Life and Work in 1940
Collection titled "Of the six books" will appear in 1940.He returned for a short time in the contemporary literature of the time a poet, Anna Akhmatova.Life and work it at this time is quite dramatic.Akhmatova found in Leningrad The Great Patriotic War.She was evacuated from there to Tashkent.However, in 1944 the poet returned to Leningrad.In 1946, subjected to cruel and unjust criticism, it was excluded from the Writers' Union.
return to Russian literature
After this event the next decade in the works of the poet noted only that at this time engaged in the artistic translation of Anna Akhmatova.Creativity its Soviet government was not interested.Gumilev, her son, was serving at the time sentence in labor camps as a political criminal.Return to Russian literature, poetry Akhmatova took place only in the second half of 1950.Since 1958 the collections of lyric poet once again beginning to be published.Was completed in 1962 "Poem Without a Hero", has been produced for 22 years already.Anna Akhmatova died in 1966, 5 March.Poet was buried near St. Petersburg in Komarov.Tomb it is presented below.
Acmeism in the works of Akhmatova
Akhmatova, whose work is now one of the pinnacles of Russian poetry, to his first book of poems belonged later is pretty cool, only a single line by selecting it: "... getting drunk sound of a voice similar to yours".Mikhail Kuzmin, however, his preface to this collection ended with the words, which to us is the young, the new poet, having all of the data to be present.In many ways, determined the poetics of "Evenings" theoretical program acmeism - the new trend in literature, which often carry a poet, Anna Akhmatova.Creativity it reflects many characteristics of this trend.
photos presented below, was made in 1925.
Acmeism arose as a reaction to the excesses of the Symbolist style.For example, Article Zhirmunsky known literary critic, about the work of the representatives of this trend are named as follows: "break the symbolism."Mystic dalyam and "purple worlds" they contrasted life in this world, "here and now".Moral relativism and the various forms of Christianity have been replaced with new "rock unshakable values."
theme of love in the work of the poetess Akhmatova
came into the literature of the 20th century, its first quarter, with the traditional theme of the lyrics for the world - the theme of love.However, its solution in the works of the poet is a fundamentally new.Akhmatova's poems are far from sentimental women's poetry, presented in the 19th century by such names as Carolina Pavlova Julia Zhadovskaya, Mirra Lokhvitskaya.They also are far from the "ideal" abstract lyricism characteristic of love poetry of the Symbolists.In this sense, it relies mainly not Russian lyrics and prose of the 19th century Akhmatova.Creativity it was groundbreaking.OE Mandelstam, for example, wrote that the lyrics brought the complexity of 19th-century Russian novel Akhmatova.The writing on the works it could be to start with this thesis.
In the "evening" are brought in different guises amorous feelings, but the heroine has always been rejected, betrayed, suffering.Chukovsky wrote about it that first opened that being unloved - a poetic, it is Akhmatova (essay on the works of her, "Akhmatova and Mayakovsky", created by the same author, has greatly contributed to its harassment when the verses of the poetnot published).The unrequited love seen a source of creativity rather than a curse.Three pieces of the collection are named, respectively, "Love," "Deception" and "Muse".The fragile femininity and elegance combined in the lyrics Akhmatova with his courageous acceptance of suffering.Of the 46 poems included in this collection, almost half was devoted to separation and death.It is not by accident.In the period from 1910 to 1912 poet possessed a sense kratkodnevnosti, she had a premonition of death.By 1912, two of her sisters died of tuberculosis, so Anna Gorenko (Akhmatova, the life and work of which we are considering) believed that the same fate befall her.However, it is not bound, in contrast to the Symbolists, separation and death with feelings of hopelessness, anguish.This mood gave rise to experience the beauty of the world.
have outlined in the book "Night" and finally took shape first in the "FINE", then "White flock" the distinctive features of the style of the poet.
motives of conscience and memory
deep historicity is an intimate lyricism Akhmatova.Already in the "clear" and "evening" with the theme of love there are two other main motive - the conscience and memory.
"fateful minutes," which was awarded national history (which began in 1914, the First World War), coincided with a difficult period in the life of the poet.It opened in 1915, tuberculosis, her family hereditary disease.
further enhances the motives of conscience and memory in the "White flock", after which her works are predominating.The poetic style of the poet in the years 1915-1917 is evolving.Increasingly, the criticism mentioned a kind of "pushkinizm" Akhmatova.The essence of his art is the completeness, accuracy of expression.It is also noted the presence of "citation layer" with many roll call and allusions both contemporaries and predecessors: OEMandelshtama, Boris Pasternak, Alexander Blok.All the spiritual richness of the culture of our country was behind Akhmatova, and she felt his true heir.
Subject homeland in the works of Akhmatova's attitude toward the revolution
not be reflected in the work of the dramatic events of the lifetime of the poet.Akhmatova, whose life and work were in a difficult period for our country, accepted the 1917 revolution as a catastrophe.The old country, in her opinion, was no more.Subject homeland in the works of Akhmatova represented, for example, in the book "Anno Domini".The section opens this came out in 1922, the collection is called "After all".To the whole book was taken as an epigraph a line "in those fabulous years ..." FITyutchev.Homeland of the poet is no more ...
However Akhmatova revolution - it is also a payment for past life of sin, retribution.Let lyrical heroine, and she does not create evil, she feels that the involvement of the total fault, so Akhmatova ready to share their share of difficult people.Homeland in the works of Akhmatova obliged to redeem himself.
Even the title of the book translates as "In the year of the Lord", it says that the poet sees as God's will his age.The use of historical parallels and biblical motifs is becoming one of the ways to understand what is happening in Russian art.They are increasingly resorting Akhmatova (for example, the poem "Cleopatra," "Dante", "Bible verses").
The lyrics of this great poet, "I" at this time becomes "we."Akhmatova speaks on behalf of "many."Every hour, not only of the poet, but her contemporaries, it would be justified by the poet's words.
These are the main themes of creativity Akhmatova, as eternal, and it is typical for the era of the life of the poet.It is often compared to the other - with Marina Tsvetaeva.Both are now female canons of the lyrics.However, not only it has a lot in common but differ in many respects creativity Akhmatova and Tsvetaeva.The writing on this subject often ask students to write.In fact, it is interesting to speculate on why it is practically impossible to confuse a poem written by Akhmatova, with works created by Tsvetaeva.But that's another topic ...