«Columbus Moskva River", the author of plays that turned Russian drama in the "real" literature - it Ostrovsky, whose works from the middle of the XIX century became the main in the repertoire of the Maly Theatre in Moscow.Everything he wrote, was not done for reading, and for the stage.The result of 40 years of creative activity became the original (50), co-authored by, processed and translated plays.
sources of "inspiration»
All Works Ostrovsky based on continuous monitoring of the life of the various classes, mostly merchants and the landed gentry.
playwright's childhood and adolescence passed in Zamoskvorechye - the old district of Moscow, which is mainly inhabited by commoners.Therefore, Ostrovsky was well acquainted with the way of life and the characteristics of intrafamily and community relations.By the middle of the XIX century it increasingly appears the so-called "speculators" - they will be included in the new merchant class.
very useful was the work of the Office of the conscienti
In the work of the playwright decided to allocate 4 basic period.Each was marked by a special approach to the image of reality and the appearance of bright pieces.
1847-1851 years.The first experiments
Essays written in the spirit of "natural school" and in accordance with the traditions laid down by Gogol, a novice writer brought the title of "Columbus Moskva River."But pretty soon they were replaced by pieces that are completely vytesnli epic genres.
first work Ostrovsky - "Family picture", read by the author for the first time on the evening of S. Shevyrov.But fame brings "Bankrut," later renamed "His people - are numbered!" The response to the play was instantaneous.Censorship it was immediately banned (written in 1849, came on the scene only in 1861) and V. Odoyevski put on a par with the "ignoramus", "Woe from Wit" and "Inspector".For several years, the product has successfully read in circles and literary evenings, providing the young author is universally recognized.
1852-1855 years."Moskvityaninsky" period
This is the time when Ostrovsky joined the "young version" of the magazine, preaching the idea of 'soil, and have an interest to the merchant.Representatives of the social class that is not associated with serfdom and not divorced from the people, could be, according to Grigoryev, a new force able to influence the development of Russia.In this period only 3 works by Ostrovsky, one of which - "Poverty is no crime."
The plot image of family relationships merchant Tortsov.The imperious and autocratic father, proud, plans to give his daughter in love with a poor clerk of skilful and rich Korshunova.This new generation of merchant, who never missed his.Convince brother tyrant manage favorite - prone to drunkenness, not amassed a fortune, but throughout the following moral laws.As a result, the case is solved successfully for Luba, and the playwright argues the victory of Russian folk culture and traditions of the European.
1856-1860 years.Rapprochement with the "Contemporary»
works of this period: "A Profitable Post", "In a strange feast hangover" and, of course, "The Storm" - are the result of rethinking the role of merchants in the patriarchal life of the country.It is no longer attracted by the playwright, and more and more features tyranny and desperately tried to resist the new and democratic (the result of commoners from the "Contemporary").This is most clearly "dark kingdom" has been shown in a single tragedy playwright "Thunderstorm".Here there are young people who do not want to put up with domostroevskimi laws.
analyzing the works created in 40-50 years, Grigoriev AN Ostrovsky called truly "national poet", which stressed the scale of the paintings depicted them.
1861-1886 years.Mature work
In 25 post-reform years of the playwright wrote vivid works of various genres and topics.They can be grouped into several groups.
- comedy about the life of merchants: "Truth is well, but happiness is better", "Not all cat carnival."
- Satire: "Wolves and Sheep", "Mad Money", "Forest" and others.
- «Pictures of life in Moscow" and "prices of the outback" of the "little" people "difficult days", "Old Friends are Besttwo, "etc.
- Chronicles on a historical theme: "Kozma Minin Zaharich-Sukhoruk" and others.
- Psychological drama "The Last Victim", "Bride".
Of special note is the play-tale "The Snow Maiden".
works of recent decades become tragic, philosophical and psychological traits and different artistic perfection and realistic approach to the image.
creator of the national theater
Pass the century, but the work of Alexander Nikolayevich Ostrovsky still collect notices on the leading stages of the country, suggesting the phrase Ivan Goncharov: "... after you ... we can proudly say we have our own Russian nationaltheater"."Poor Bride" and "stay in your own sled", "Marriage Bal'zaminova" and "The heart is not a stone," "Not a penny, and suddenly Altyn" and "The Wise Man Stumbles" ... this list known to every theater-goerthe names of Ostrovsky's plays can be continued for a long time.Thanks to the skill of the playwright on the stage came to life a special world full of problems that will always excite mankind.