Today we tell about Anton Chekhov - about his life.And Chekhov's work will be presented in our article.We begin with a brief biography, and then tell you everything in detail.
brief chronicle of the life and work of Anton Chekhov
- Anton Chekhov was born 17 (29) January 1860 in Taganrog.The family of his parents - Paul G. Chekhov (the merchant) and Eugenia Yakovlevna.
- period from 1876 to 1878 - this time, the first literary experiments of the writer.
- Study at Moscow University in the Faculty of Medicine, held in 1879-1884, respectively.
- in 1880 published the first works of the writer and his work was carried out in a variety of comic papers: "Alarm", "Fragments," "Dragonfly".
- In 1890 Chekhov traveled to the island of Sakhalin.
- He began working in 1898 with the Moscow Art Theatre, which took place at the same time the premiere of the play "The Seagull."
- marriage to Olga Knipper OL - 1901.
- 1903-1904 biennium.- On the stage of the Moscow Art Theatre was first staged a play called "The Cherry Orchard."
- In 1904, 2 (15) in July, the writer died in Badenweiler, in the German spa town.
So, we briefly describe the life and work of Chekhov.Table, which can be formed from this chronicle, will help you better learn the information, if you want to remember key dates associated with the person of Anton Chekhov.
|1860, January 17||Chekhov was born|
|1876-1878 biennium.||first literary experiments|
|1879-1884 biennium.||study at Moscow University|
|1880||first works, work in comic magazines|
|1898||premiere of "The Seagull"|
|1901||marriage to Olga Knipper|
|1903-1904 biennium.||staged the play "The Cherry Orchard"|
|1904, July 2||died Chekhov|
If you need more in-depth knowledge of the biography, you will fairly detailed outline of the life and work of Chekhov that we have madeand offer to your attention today.
The house parents
Anton Pavlovich Chekhov was born in Taganrog.His grandfather was a serf by birth, but will bought for himself and his family, and then served as manager of the estate (some of the features of his image reflected in the character of Firs "The Cherry Orchard").Father Anton owned grocery store, but differed inability to conduct economic affairs, impractical.In his character it connects many: children convey artistic talent (Paul G. good draw, and was fond of music, playing the violin, loved church singing) with the imperiousness and heavy-handed with respect to the family and others.Chekhov, recalling childhood, wrote to Alexander, his elder brother in 1883 that childhood was poisoned horrors.Family despotism and punishment developed Chekhov rejection of violence and injustice, the desire for independence, a heightened sense of self-esteem.
independence in life
and creativity, and the life of Chekhov's early became independent.In his family the children quickly became independent.The sons helped in trade, from an early age working in the shop.Anton Pavlovich so from a young age, was immersed in the everyday environment, he cleaned the apartment, went to the market, carried water, washed himself collar to form, filled with kerosene lamps.
But his life was something else: home performances and skits that Chekhov himself invented and played together with his brothers, fishing.The seven bright start making mother, who was intelligent, sincere and kind woman.
world of nature in the life and work of Chekhov
Since childhood Anton Pavlovich loved the natural world left a deep mark on his soul, awaken the thirst for life.And it reflects the work of Chekhov.In his stories we meet the description of the steppe, the Taganrog Bay ("The Steppe", "On Christmas Night" and others.).It is acutely aware of the connection with the nature of the writer throughout life and showed the works of its profound influence on human life.In the works of Chekhov humanized nature: animals, flowers, trees, think and feel like people ("Fear", "White-fronted", "Kashtanka," "Agatha").
Education in the gymnasium
older brother even managed to catch a time when the family was safe: home visiting teacher in French, after which it was replaced by Mme.For Nicholas, the brother of the future writer, was invited as a music teacher.
When Anton Pavlovich grew up, family's financial situation worsened, so he was able to receive only high-school education.Of particular interest in studying at the grammar school in Chekhov, however, did not cause.This institution was typical for the time.On it you can make more or less accurate idea of Chekhov's short story titled "Man in a Case".
In high school science were good, there was a telescope, the latest devices in offices.Anton in the classroom for the Law of God became a favorite pupil of Theodore Platonovich Pokrovsky.It was an interesting, unusual person who noticed early the future writer comic talent and gave him the nickname Chekhonte, which became later the pseudonym Chekhov.Thus, he played a role in his life.And Chekhov's work took shape without the involvement of this interesting personality.However, prevailed in this school spirit, mainly different formalism and bureaucratism.On the spiritual formation of the future writer strongly influenced by books and theater.It developed an early love for drama: at the age of 13 years, the future writer was already a regular visitor to the theater of Taganrog.
To this period belong also his first literary attempts, now known only by the names that are created while Chekhov.Life and work, in short, at this time there have been some important developments.Basic biographical facts we have presented, and as for creativity, we note the following.As a schoolboy, he published the magazine "Bunny", wrote the comedy "No wonder hen sang" and "Recovers cut diamond" and the drama "Fatherless".
Busting family Chekhov
In 1876, Chekhov's father went bankrupt, was forced to leave with his family in Moscow.Anton was left alone in Taganrog 16 years, as had graduated from high school.He began to earn giving private lessons, banished even family remittances.These difficult years, a life full of loneliness, of trials and hardships, contributed to the early maturation of a writer like Chekhov.Life and Work (briefly described) a further period marked by the following major events.
Chekhov - a student at Moscow University
After passing final exams in 1879, Chekhov went to Moscow.Here he was enrolled in the Moscow University, the Faculty of Medicine.From the first course, Chekhov began to work in a variety of magazines printed.For the family almost the only source of financing became his literary earnings.Chekhov became the head of the family and its provider.
first published works
first published his works (parody) came out in the journal "Dragonfly".Chekhov, choosing the literary path, printed in both humorous and serious genres.However, early work is dominated by the first.Under various pseudonyms (Brother of my brother, man without a spleen, Anton Chekhonte) it is printed in the comic magazine "Fragments," "Dragonfly", "Alarm", "The Spectator."The main genres in which there was a humorous press of the time, there were different "little things" that have been created by certain canons: humorous aphorisms, comic calendars, captions, anecdotes, dictionaries, comic ad, management and so on. D. Their Chekhov soon masteredand felt that he was close to them.
satirical and humorous stories
In 1882-1883 there were such stories as "Death to the official," "Thick and Thin", "Daughter of Albion."While many of the works were written in the form of sketches, that is a short comic story, the comic which is to transfer calls heroes.Chekhov raised the genre to the level of serious literature.Among the artistic features scenes of Chekhov are the following: simple names, at least explanations and descriptions ("Burbot" "Guest," "Help," "In the bath"), saying the names (Actor Porcupine General Zapupyrin warden Ochumelov master Khriukin)and funny spoken language characters.
new tone in the works of Chekhov
Threads later works are already present in the first of Chekhov's stories: the author laughs at the absurdity of behavior and thinking of the people, their empty claims.Over time, the works are new key.Headship in the works is still the humor, but he gets some new colors, a new sound - a sad, lyrical.We see the movement from ridicule to the analysis, and of the funny characters - a controversial, complex.Are replaced by images of mask-individual character.In the stories of the period of 1883-1886 years ("arts", "Alarm", "Tosca", "Huntsman"), I have seen the future Chekhov.
Making Chekhov story
continue the life and work of Chekhov.A summary of them in the period from 1884 to 1888 can be given as follows.In 1884, upon completion of their studies at the university, working in Zvenigorod Chekhov, Voskresensk.He is also a correspondent for the Moscow newspaper, "fragments".In the period from 1884 to 1888 he produced many works - more than 350.Chekhov's story at this time is made as the original and the new phenomenon of Russian literature.Chekhov in this small genre managed to accommodate a huge psychological, social and philosophical content.Surprisingly capacious had this form.
flowering of talent in the genre of Chekhov story
to the period 1880-1890-ies type of hero finally determined (the average, ordinary, often the "little" people).The object image becomes ordinary, everyday life.It is now considered the heyday of Chekhov's talent.Creating new collections.In 1886 - "Motley stories" in 1887 - "Innocent speech" and "In the twilight", in 1888 - "Stories" in 1890 - "Gloomy people."The writer was awarded the Pushkin Prize for the book called "In the twilight".In the autumn of 1887 he wrote the comedy "Ivanov" and then - vaudeville "Jubilee", "The Wedding", "The Proposal" and "The Bear", which were put in professional theaters.
Chekhov sent to the island of Sakhalin
trip to Sakhalin changed the life and work of Chekhov.Briefly describe the main events of the time.On this island Chekhov went to be with convicts.Here he made three months alone census talked to different people.Chekhov, as a citizen and artist, has decided to show the people the harsh truth.Total trip - published in 1894 the book "The Island of Sakhalin".
works written in the 90s
After that the phenomena of domestic reality, he began to treat more sharply.The first of the major works written after the trip became a story titled "Duel" (published in 1891), and "Chamber №6" - the story, published in 1892.
Chekhov in 90 years writes about delusions, illusions, insolvency different life programs ("Rothschild's Violin", "Grasshopper," "Teacher of Literature").At that time, it was also set up such stories as "About Love," "Gooseberries," "Man in a Case," "Ionich."
the spring of 1892 the writer settled in Melikhovo estate near Moscow, engaged in charitable social activities, treats the peasants, building schools, medical center.It changes his life.Chekhov, life, whose works are interconnected, creating on the basis of the impressions of the work "In the Ravine," "New Villa", "a cart", "Guys".
playwright Anton Chekhov
first play with which Chekhov's drama began - is "The Seagull."It was staged in the theater of Alexandria in 1896.However, the idea was not successful.The reason - the misunderstood many of Chekhov's innovations.After 2 years in the production of the Moscow Art Theatre, it caused a furor.After "The Seagull," came the play "Uncle Vanya" (1899), also played a huge success.In later works ("Three Sisters" and "The Cherry Orchard" - 1901 and 1903, respectively) embodied in the principles of full dramatic author.
In 1897, Chekhov was forced to go to the TB clinic, and then spend the winter in Nice 1897-1898.At the insistence of the doctors he went in September 1898 in Yalta, where he spent the winter.In recent years, the writer was preparing a collection of works, which is in two editions (1899-1902 th and 1903's.) Appeared in print.
In 1901, a writer married to Olga Knipper Leonardovna actress.
Gradually his health deteriorated, the doctors insisted on sending to Germany in Badenweiler.This writer went with his wife.2 (15) in July 1904 was the last day of his life.
and work of Chekhov, and his public activities, and various facts from biographies show us that he was a man of high spiritual ideals and moral values.Thanks to such as he is, our world is a little better.Chronicles the life and work of Chekhov was presented in this article.We will be glad if it led in you the desire to continue the acquaintance with this wonderful writer.The life and work of Chekhov, his biography is very instructive and interesting.In this article, unfortunately, all the details it is impossible to tell.