Chekhov unique.Speaking figuratively, he - one of the giants of the golden Russian literature of the end of the XIX century, the founder of a new creative method.Anton Pavlovich also considered unbeatable playwright.His works have contributed to this rise of the Russian national theater.They are still highly desirable to most of the conceptual stages of theaters in Russia and abroad.
classic Leo Tolstoy was highly appreciated work of Chekhov.Leo claimed that Anton Pavlovich - a unique writer in the world.His characterization of the author of "The Seagull" is full of enthusiasm: "Chekhov - is Pushkin's prose!" Prominent novelist called it an incomparable artist, who created such forms of writings, which he never met.
creative method Chekhov found his response and on the shores of Albion.English playwright and novelist John Galsworthy noted that only a beneficial effect on English literature Chekhov.Topics creativity because it was reinterpreted in particular Bernard Shaw.For exa
On the creative method of the writer
Indeed, Chekhov was the innovator who refused to involve the characters in action is imposed from the outside, from the artificial creation of intrigue, fromdeliberate giving the author his work entertaining.Instead of all this, Anton Pavlovich the emphasis in his works shifted to a more delicate matter.In the story of his works were played first violin change state of mind of the hero, the dynamics of its opposition to the circumstances, domestic routine.
The focus of his art Anton put the idea of making the world a better, cleaner, above.Chekhov, follow this principle, it seeks to awaken the "living soul" in the reader.Classic in the product simply shows a man as he is.The author does not flirt with the audience, not trying to move it, nothing embellishes.His favorite characters - educated people nizvodyaschie futlyarnoy themselves to life on lies and builders nesytoy womb, as well as representatives of the people cited poverty and bullying indifferent to the state of dullness.
It is also important to focus on what should be the principles of Chekhov's work, they also open:
- The brevity of thought classic calls her sister's talent is not in vain.He prefers concise, restrained narrative.He is sure of his readers, who, in his opinion, he would find the meaning, even if the product and complex.
- In Chekhov things always play a significant role, seemingly small details.They are not just present in the works, and are an allusion to the main, the cornerstones of his ideas.
- Chekhov's style is characterized by impartiality description, because it is convinced that the conclusions should make the reader.
- Chekhov specifically for children almost did not write ("Kashtanka" and "White-fronted" - an exception).He believed that to read a child should choose the best of literature, "adult".
However, to formulate a general look at the work of a classic, it would be logical to follow the evolution of the formation of his creative method.The object of our study will be the biography and work of Chekhov.
first experience creativity
Anton Chekhov was born on January 17, 1860 in Taganrog, in a poor family of merchants.Here he graduated from the city's gymnasium.Even in the graduating classes he active adult author published in popular magazines "Alarm", "dragonfly", "Fragments".So from a young age to earn money, critically needed for the family, Chekhov.
Meanwhile, the fate of a young man preparing ordeal: seventeen, he suffered a severe inflammation of the peritoneum, which, according to one version, considered the first manifestation of his tuberculosis.According to another version, expressed by Professor VI Razumovsky, Anton Chekhov had the misfortune to catch it in the university classroom of the Medical Faculty.
Since 1879 began for the young Chekhov's time consuming studies at Moscow University and intense journalistic activity.According to the memoirs of Chekhov, it was difficult to combine studies with creative activity, chasing two hares - medicine and literature.The fact that he was with his parents, four brothers and a sister living in a small apartment in Moscow.And suddenly arrived relatives often been constrained aspiring to write Chekhov.
Humorous stories made it a collection of "loafers and complacent" (1882), which has not been published for reasons of censorship.The first failure was inspired by a young writer.Later he would say typical condensed formulation of his personal motivation to work, "celebrates life can not be clean."
Then the busy pace of life will aggravate the disease.In 1884, letter to the publisher of the magazine "Shards" twenty-four Chekhov complains of fever and inability to engage in further practice.It focuses entirely on the literary activity.In 1884 he published his book "Tales of Melpomene" under the pseudonym Anton Chekhonte, and in 1886 - "Motley stories."In the second book of humorous stories Chekhov put more precisely - a parody.There his talent manifested itself in the genre of the comic detective.Author tries himself in many genres.He experiments.Manage and wish: his parodies of popular books are a success.
However, future classics still interested in serious literature.It is in this next story Chekhov wrote."Vanya" (1886) tells the story of nine orphan apprentice shoemaker Alyahina, exploited and discriminated against the child, crying out to his grandfather Constantine Makarych take him out of this "science craft."Above the boy, an orphan, bullied senior apprentice, his beats and pull hair himself a cobbler.Boy writes in the pre-Christmas night.The memories and hopes, drawn by his imagination vividly brings readers Chekhov.Roly - child and he sends her a letter with a children's touching naivety "in the village of my grandfather."Accordingly, the reader understands that Constantine Makarych had never read, and nothing will change in the hard life of a boy.
established writers Chekhov
since 1885 are starting to work with it serious literary publications: "Russian Thought", "Northern Herald".The publication of stories "Name Day" story "Steppe", "A Boring Story," "Kashtanka" Chekhov.In 1887 he published two collections of stories ("Innocent speech" and "In the twilight"), in 1888 - "Stories" in 1890 - "Gloomy people."To this comes the recognition.In 1888, the writer was awarded the Pushkin Prize small (half).
characteristic that most of the works of this author, even vnezhanrovym, the talent of the author provided an appropriate level of their popularity.For example, "Kashtanka" Chekhov loved by generations of children.She repeatedly filmed.It would seem that may be easier to stories about how a dog (a cross between a dachshund and mongrel) lost the first host, and then, almost becoming a circus, suddenly she found him.All Chekhov's simple: no wizards, no mermaids.However, the story has always loved children.
Journey to Sakhalin
noteworthy that the biography and work of Chekhov evince him as a man is not only a highly observant, but very active and inquisitive.In 1890, he embarks on a journey to Sakhalin.Impressions of its almost three-month way across Siberia, it displays in a cycle of essays "From Siberia".Then another three months writer spends on Sakhalin, where trying to understand the psychology and life convicts, and finally returned to Odessa by sea, visiting the ports of Hong Kong, about.Ceylon, Singapore, Turkey.Based on materials from a four-year journey, he starts to work on a book of essays "Sakhalin".Sailed home, he buys in the Moscow province picturesque estate of Melikhovo.
Melikhovo - understanding of Sakhalin observations.The new stage of world
biography and works of Chekhov, according to literature, decorated with a very special period called the tune with his name "Melikhovo".At that time, a special flair classic Chekhov felt the changes in society, associated with the displacement of the feudal society that, as well as realize the ugliness of the reactionary policies pursued.However, not only on a collection of "Sakhalin" works Anton Pavlovich, who became finally the wealthy, in his newfound picturesque estate.
Popularity truly democratic writer - is enormous.Buyers literally disperse from the shelves of the book with the inscription AP Chekhov "The stories and novels."In the first year of creativity Melikhovo period was completed conceptual story "Chamber №6».A powerful and unique way of Chekhov dreaded leper gray town where all the creative long-stifled, where the "sights" are just Hospital da jail, hit the reader with all the merciless truth, making you wonder: "Why are we so ...."Lawlessness, whose stronghold is in the hospital threw the principles of humanism Dr. Ragin, his death (the reward of faith) make you think about how really people should live.
New works by Chekhov convincingly showed clearly progressing unique writer who rose to a new stage of creativity.
Melikhovo.Awareness of the situation of the peasantry
Anton Pavlovich, because the daily hours of work, has turned into a really astute master.He has learned to see the essence of that day was the sight of millions of his countrymen, but it was not realized by them.
Russia at its core was a country peasant.It is in Melikhovo he managed to notice what hushed gentlemen populists.Inquiring follows the lives of factory villages and Kryukovo Ugryumova Chekhov.Stories "Case Study", "petticoat", according to eyewitnesses, in detail depict real people, including the parasites - merchants Hrymin, which in reality were "worse."
Chekhov discovered reading public peasant Russia.For demagoguery, lies veiled love populists and their understanding of the aspirations of the peasants there was a conspiracy of silence.He cracked his Chekhov story "Peasants".In her classic he declared publicly that peasants often "live worse than beasts."They are in the mass terrifyingly "poor neuhozheny, drunk, dirty."They undeveloped spiritual qualities, they are often "afraid and unaware" of each other.These people suffer from them violate the human rights of their human dignity.They need to educate their rights should be protected!
Chekhov worked enthusiastically.Contemporaries remember that the light in his office in Melikhovo often burned all night.
diverse palette of classic
how diverse palette of this master, illustrates that in a series of major works of Chekhov suddenly writes children's story "White-fronted."Actually, none of the literary critics and did not expect the "engineer of human souls" suddenly create a story vnezhanrovogo character.And the answer is simple: he loved children.The tragedy did not lock him his children a great writer with tuberculosis, he could not have.However, he was concerned about the children of peasants, raising their school on their own personal funds.
OH - versatile writer.Convinced realist influenced by nervous shock caused by his bad dream, suddenly creates exciting and romantic work "The Black Monk", which subtly interwoven issues and genius of creation.Also hard
realistic, created and works of Chekhov with autobiographical elements (the story "My Life").In "The House with the Mezzanine" and "Goosebumps" classic tells the story of a diametrically opposite sides of the capitalization of the villages: the ruin of "Noble Nest" lack of spirituality and the new "masters of life", the merchants.The last-mentioned story with "The Man in a Case" and "About Love" is a trilogy.
about several "Melikhovo" plays
Melikhovo Chekhov creates a brilliant play "Uncle Vanya."As he succinctly it expresses human ingratitude and despair generated by it!Uncle Vanya faithfully serve the owner of the estate, the professor to give him a miserly salary.The owner decides to sell it, without worrying about the fate of man, "which he tamed" (the latter phraseology - from "The Little Prince" Exupery).
Reflections on ways to bring the art of the playwright to create a new masterpiece - the play "The Seagull."It Chekhov on storylines of different characters leads the audience to understand what is the real art is profoundly unique for its adept way of hard work of the soul, full of frustration, victims.It is the heroine of the play Nina Nina, steadily following the vocation and becoming an actress.Characteristically, the images of this product - real people visit Melikhovo and storylines play largely consonant with their destinies.
Yalta period of creativity
In 1898, the classic disease worsened, and he and his family moved to Yalta.Until November 1899 (so far built a house) Anton travels to Moscow, where he rents an apartment.Built cottage has one significant drawback for a sick person, in winter it's cold.Builders incorrectly posted oven.Entries writer suggests that winter in his office temperature was 11-12 degrees.
In Yalta, the writer obviously did not like.In addition, there he was deprived of familiar Melihovo fresh agricultural food.The point to be adjusted, when occasionally visited Sister Maria Pavlovna.However, this was not often.
Written to the classics in Yalta, in his memoirs, much worse than in Melekhovo.In 1901 he wrote the play "Three Sisters", short stories "The Lady with the Dog", "bishop."According to Melikhovo impressions created in 1903, completes the work of "the engineer of human souls" - the play "The Cherry Orchard."It is characterized by visualization of the future of Russia as a cherry orchard.
In recent years, life-threatening illness intensified.The writer died on July 2, 1904 in the German spa town of Badenweiler.
From childhood into our lives includes books by Chekhov.It is the creation of author-dreamer, who at the end of the XIX century was able to clearly show their works compatriots that life should be different.He was a staunch opponent of discrimination and at the same time, the unique master of words.Anton called to build a new life, fragrant and beautiful as the cherry orchard.