In this article we will introduce you to the life and work of Chekhov, the great Russian writer and playwright.From it you will learn about how going on its formation as an original author of the creative heritage of Anton Chekhov, on the identity and nature of the creator of immortal works.The life and work of Chekhov begin to describe his biography.
writer Anton Chekhov was born in Taganrog.His father, Paul Chekhov G., was a merchant, enters the third guild.His mother's name was Eugene Y..It is recorded in the register in the cathedral church of Taganrog.
According to his brothers, and Chekhov himself, family upbringing was strict.He studied the young writer in the classical school, helped with his sister and brother in the grocery store his father, and also sang in the church choir, which was organized by Pavel Georgievich.According to his father, in the shop required a master's eye, so Anton, being of all the children of the most honest, it appears most often in the role of th
Moving to Moscow
father went bankrupt in 1876, he fled to Moscow from creditors, where his family and settled.The older sons, Nicholas and Alexander, went to study in the capital earlier.Anton, however, remained in Taganrog to finish high school.He earned his living by giving lessons, even in Moscow had sent money for the family.So begins an independent life and work of Chekhov.In the years of study in high school he created drama "Fatherless," work "What chicken sang" (vaudeville), as well as many short comic works.
Study at the University
Chekhov's Life and Work of years in the period from 1879 to 1884 years, presented the following events.At this time the writer became a student at Moscow University, entered the Medical Faculty.
At the same time he published short skits, parodies, jokes in different comic magazines ("Clock", "dragonfly", "Fragments") under different pseudonyms (my father's brother, a man without a spleen, Anton Chekhonte, Purselepetantov).The first works, which were printed - a parody titled "Letter to the scientist neighbor", and "What is most common ..." Both works were published in 1880.After 4 years there is a first book of short stories writer, "Tales of Melpomene," and then in 1886 - "Motley stories" in 1887 - "In the twilight", in 1890 - "Gloomy people."
first recognition of readers and critics
not immediately come to the recognition of Chekhov Russian critics, but success with readers, he acquired much earlier.And these critics can understand.It was unclear what the narrator says Chekhov, for what purpose it is, as called for.At the time, it was very unusual refusal of preaching, the desire to solve the "big" problem in the literature ("What?", "Who is to blame?"), As it has traditionally happened in the works of Russian classics.However, a few years after its debut as a writer in 1887, Czechs storybook titled "In the twilight" was awarded the prestigious Pushkin Prize.It was not only the recognition of him as a writer, but also a genre in which Chekhov did.Many of his contemporaries perceived as a narrative stories about yourself, your life.Chukovsky, for example, said that Tolstoy seemed omniscient, but his books were about someone else, and that's the story of Chekhov's "My Life" is written as though about it, reading it, if you read your own blog.
medical practice and its reflection in the work
was appointed county physician in 1884, Chekhov began to study medical business.
From April to December 1890 the writer was on the island of Sakhalin, who in that time the place where contemporaries Chekhov serving hard labor.It was Chekhov civil act, "going to the people."Chekhov in a book called "The Island of Sakhalin" (years of creation - 1893-1894) acted as the investigator of living, flowing under exile and hard labor.Since then, in the words of Chekhov himself, all of his work was "prosahalineno."For example, in the story "Chamber №6", "In reference" (both written in 1892) to reflect the experience of visiting the island.Significantly worsened the health status of the writer's journey, he escalated tuberculosis.
Moving to Melihovo
Life and work of Chekhov, a summary of the biography of which we describe have been going in Melikhovo.Chekhov in 1892 bought the estate near Moscow.In it, he not only created his works, but also treated peasants discovered their children several schools, medical center, traveled to the province, which were covered by the famine, and also participated in the census.This manor until 1898 were the life and work of Chekhov.Were written works "Rothschild's Violin", "Grasshopper," "The Seagull," Teacher of Literature "," Uncle Vanya "and others.
Chekhov: life, work and achievements in Yalta in
Writerin 1898 he moved to Yalta. There, he bought a plot of land on which built house. The visiting Anton Pavlovich visited such famous contemporaries as Maxim Gorky, Leo Tolstoy, Alexander Kuprin, Ivan Bunin, Isaac Levitan.
Chekhov at the end of 1880 has created many pieces for the theater, such as "Goblin", "Ivanov", "Wedding" and vaudeville "Jubilee", "Bear".
In 1896, not understood the audience and the actors sufferedthe failure of one of the most famous today, his plays - "The Seagull." But two years later she had a resounding success in the production of the Moscow Art Theatre, becoming the symbol of a new performing arts. Closely associated with the theater at this time of the life and work of Chekhov.The best works of the writer put in the Moscow Art Theater, "Uncle Vanya" (1898), "Three Sisters" (1901) and "The Cherry Orchard" (1904).Since then, they did not leave the stage in theater productions around the world.
Anton Pavlovich in 1900 was elected an academician of belles-lettres, but he refused the title in 1902 (together with Vladimir Korolenko), since the election of Gorky to the Academy was declared void by the decree of the king.
Chekhov in 1901 marries Knipper, the actress, who played in the Moscow Art Theater.Three years later, the writer goes to a resort Badenweiler, Germany, for treatment because his health is deteriorating.Here he died on June 2 (New Style - June 15).Anton Pavlovich Chekhov was buried in Moscow, the Novodevichy cemetery.
What can we learn the biography of Chekhov?
instructive biography of Chekhov: the man himself has brought up.His words: "We have to train ourselves."The young writer was not at the Chekhov as we know it.When his wife reported that Anton soft compliant character, he told her that in fact the nature of his hot-tempered and sharp, but he was used to restrain themselves as not proper to dismiss a decent man, he believed Chekhov.
Life and work of the writer are closely linked.That is what he wrote in the works, the author has tried to prove his own life.His biography, and so instructive that the writer was able to suppress my temper and rudeness, to develop a softness and delicacy, however, none of the writers of the time did not have.This is reflected in his work.The difference between early Chekhov (author of parodies and satirical articles) and Chekhov's period of 1890 dramatically: from the time of its creation have found nobility, classical restraint, precision in the expression of feelings and thoughts, dignity.Closely intertwined life and work of Chekhov.
Favorite poems, which he dedicated to the age of 23 Catherine Yunoshevoy, his classmate ("last farewell"), a year later he brought in his story, "Oh, women! .." As an example of incompetent crambo.
Manifested Chekhov transformation even in the appearance of the writer, which combined artless, typically Russian traits with finesse and profound generosity.
Anton Chekhov, whose life and work we are describing, was very humble, considerate and hardworking person.He was not a so-called "teacher of life" and avoid direct conversation about aesthetics, ethics in their works.But elevating the educational value of his books have been (and, of course, continues to be) above the impact of any passionate sermons.Uncompromising attitude writer to mediocrity, vulgarity, but the courage and intransigence were his special - subtle, tactful, Chekhov.
Tolstoy called Chekhov "artist of life."In determining this has two meanings: means "artist" not only the "master of words."Chekhov drew their own lives, to build it from the first to the last minute as proof of moral theorem.
Features stories Chekhov
As we have said, the early stories of this multi-faceted writer as Chekhov, sketch the life and work of which we will briefly introduce in this article are very different from others, written after 1888.This milestone has been mentioned by chance - it is considered a turning point in the work we are interested in the author.In the early stories ("Thick and Thin", "Death to the officer," and others.) Dominates above all a comic element.Fantasy of the author, calling himself Purselepetantovym, Antosha Chekhonte et al., Was inexhaustible and rich in bright and unexpected funny stories, pictures, themes.He was able to observe them in their lives.
other by the tone of the stories submitted 1890s.Predominate in them skepticism, sadness, regret the writer, they largely philosophic.Other poetics at the later works of Chekhov, it is expressed in the genre defining these creations as a satirical stories.
actually outwardly simple works are complex, there remains a sense of non-exhaustion, reticence.Author's position in them is not emphasized.The tone of the narrative is usually - lyrical irony.With a sad smile writer looks into a person recalls the beautiful, perfect life, the way it should be.Home Chekhov - the awakening of the readers of the moral consciousness, and not impose their ideas about the world and man, literature and life.
features Chekhov's drama
Chekhov created his own theater, with its special dramaturgical language.It was not immediately understood by his contemporaries Chekhov.His plays are not many seem theatrical, clumsily made, with the lack of action, with erratic Stretched dialogues with unclear intent of the author, and so on.. For example, Gorky wrote "The Cherry Orchard", he brings the audience longing for the green vehicle functionis unknown.Chekhov was established theater mood: halftone, allusions to the "undercurrent" (Nemirovich-Danchenko) - largely anticipating dramatic quest in the 20th century.
Chronotope in Chekhov's drama
Anton expanded the concept of chronotope (time and space), characteristic of the classical Russian literature of the 19th century.In the works of his predecessors in the center was provided largely aristocratic manor, peasants and nobility Russia.And Chekhov introduced the works of the urban image of a man with its corresponding urban attitude.Chronotope Chekhov - a time-space of the city.I do not mean social status, not geography, and psychology, sense of urban man.
Chekhov and develop its own concept of the image of man and life - essentially unheroic, everyday.In the works is no acute conflict, poverty, conflicts.Sometimes it seems that nothing happens to them.The movement is not from one event to another, and from mood to mood.
Language plays many meanings, melodic, poetic, symbolic, that was required to create a common sense of implication, the general mood.
- book entitled "Sakhalin Island" was an artistic document of the modern era of the author.
- Chekhov began at the beginnings of the modern tragicomedy.
- In his works the best samples of national literature in all varieties of short fiction genre.
- Chekhovian dramaturgy become a kind of calling card of Russian literature in the world.
- call that left us Chekhov: "Take care of a man!"- Eternal.
- This author was not only a writer and playwright, but also a poet.The poems, written in the years of teaching at the school, reflect his life.
- and work of Chekhov, whose best poems can be found in the eighteenth volume "Complete Works and Letters," and his biography is quite remarkable.
- artistic discoveries of this writer strongly influenced the theater and literature of the 20th century.Translated into many languages dramatic works began to consistently included in the theatrical repertoire worldwide.
- this author managed to create new moves in the literature, a significant impact on the development of the genre of the story.The innovation is the use of so-called stream of consciousness, the reception, which was later taken over by James Joyce and other modernist writers.
- Chekhov was the first in Russian literature, who clearly demonstrated to us the image of the inhabitant of the province, devoid of craving activity, broad-minded, good aspirations.Like no other writer has clearly shown how for society and the individual is a dangerous philistinism (stories "The Teacher of Literature", "Ionich").
So, we have in general presented the life and work of Chekhov.The best and most interesting and instructive, we have selected for you.We recommend, however, use other sources.The life and work of Chekhov dates you can explore if you want more detail.Books written about this author, there is now a great variety.It is interesting to read the correspondence of Anton Pavlovich and his wife, published in 1972 Schatsem V. Danilova S. and others, as well as the difficulty Gitovich NI, created in 1986, which presents the memoirs of contemporaries of this great writer.Chronology of the life and work of Chekhov can be supplemented with a support for these and other sources.