At the beginning of 1842, Nicholas I issued a decree on the early construction of the first railroad in Russia.She was supposed to connect Moscow and St. Petersburg.All the work, led CEO paths PA Kleinmichel, completed in record time.Already in 1852, the road has been launched.
Russian poet Nikolai Nekrasov, dedicated to this event one of the most important poems of civil orientation.That's just his attention increasingly attracted not so much good, that gave the road will reduce the time and ways from one week to the day, but the fact at what price it got to Russia.
From the history of creation
poem "Railway" Nekrasov was written in 1864 and published in the journal "Contemporary".By the time the railway between Moscow and St. Petersburg was named Nikolaev, and PA Kleinmichel, distinguished by incredible cruelty to subordinates and to compromise power, dismissed Alexander II.
However, a problem that raises the author of the work, in the 60 years of XIX century is a critical issue.At this time
working on the poem, the poet studied a number of journalistic documents, including an article by N. Dobrolyubov and V. Sleptsova of cruel treatment to control subordinates, published in the years 1860-61, which extends the time limits of the work.Surname same Kleinmichel increasingly had to divert attention from the relevance of the theme of censorship.But even that does not make it any less damning, that allows us to understand in-depth analysis."Railroad" Nekrasov many contemporaries perceived as a bold denunciation existed under Alexander II orders.
product consists of four chapters, the combined images of the narrator (lyrical), the general and his son Vanya caught together in a train Moscow -Peterburg.The role played by exposure epigraph, decorated in the form of dialogue, father and son.That's the general answer to the question about his son who built this railway, the narrator forced to intervene in the conversation.Arising out of the dispute and was the basis for a poem (below is the plan) "Railways".
Nekrasov, his work addresses the same children as Vanya.In the opinion of the poet, they will certainly need to be aware though bitter, but still true history of their country, as they are the future of Russia.
Chapter 1. Autumn Landscape
beginning of the poem "Railway" imbued with a sense of admiration Nekrasov and peace.This sets the tone has the first line: "The glorious autumn!" To the author's picture of nature, flashing through the window of the car, all represent darling Rus (from the names of ancient and has already departed in the past, breathes warmth and love), a unique and cherished.Here, everything is beautiful and harmonious, even enters the field of view of "Kochi", "bog moss and stumps."Of the total plan knocked one word that makes the reader more cautious: "there is no disgrace in nature ...".Involuntarily the question arises: "Then where is it there?"
Chapter 2. The builders of the railway
Next Nekrasov Nikolai returns the reader to the epigraph and asked "dad" not "charm" (here - error) to keep his son and tell him the bitter truth about the creation of the road.At the beginning of the conversation the narrator observes that "... this work can not accomplish alone," and therefore he could not Kleinmichel conduct construction.Stronger control and even the Russian Emperor could be only one king - Hunger.It was he at all times to decide the fate of millions of people.As far as the rights in this statement the narrator, help to understand the following picture painted by the author and their analysis.
«Railroad" Nekrasov continues the story of how incalculable evil and suffering are the people during the construction of the road.The first conclusion, which makes the author - these wonderful paths were built on the Russian bones."How many of them ?!" - a rhetorical question, an exclamation, in this case speaks volumes and numbers.And suddenly slumbering under the sound of the wheels Van seen terrible picture.Until recently, such a beautiful landscape gives way to the description of running after the carriage of the dead - the builders of the road.Peace and quiet broken ringing spades, gnashing of teeth, moaning, crying and loud song about the suffering experienced.Many instead of bread and money have found here a tomb, as all the work was carried out during daylight hours from early spring to late fall and sometimes winter.But a celebration filled with dead words (the author speaks on their behalf, which further lends credence depicted): "Ljubo us to see his work."It is this "noble habit ..." - working - and draws attention to the boy narrator.
From running after the train crowd stands frozen figure of a workaholic.He does not move, but only "a rusty shovel frozen ground hammer."
fully understand the consequences of unsustainable labor and inhuman living conditions allow a detailed description of its shape and appearance, as well as their analysis ("Railroad" Nekrasov - deeply realistic work, showing all unvarnished).Fallen eyelids and bloodless lips covered with sores thin arms and swollen feet ("eternally in the water"), "yamoyu chest" and humped back ... The author describes even a mat in her hair - a sign of unsanitary conditions and a constant painful illness.And monotonous, driven to automatism movement.It erased the distinction between dead and alive but very sick man, shows how Belarusian Nikolai Nekrasov.The railroad as a result for some becomes a source of glory for others - the grave.It buried thousands of unknown people who were tortured.
So feelings of elation caused by the beauty of nature in one chapter, the description is replaced by the brutal exploitation of man by man.
Chapter 3. The role of the people in the history of
Locomotive whistle, like the cry of a rooster, dispelled seemed so real vision (recall the features of the ballads that successfully uses in the poem "Railway" Nekrasov).The idea of the narrator of the great feat accomplished by the people, and the story about the wonderful dream Wani cause a general laughter.For him, the simple men no more than drunkards, barbarians and destroyers.In his presentation worthy of admiration only true creators of beauty, and it should certainly be inspired talented people.Esthete at heart, has recently seen the best works of art in Rome and Vienna, the general contempt for the uneducated man, no matter what, in his opinion, is not capable of.Including the construction of the railway.In this dispute reflected the actual characters in the middle of the century confrontation materialists and aesthetes that useful: practicality (ie. E. A clay pot), or beauty - a statue of Apollo (Pushkin, "The Poet and the crowd").
Father believes that such stories originally harmful to the child's heart and asks to show the "bright side" of the construction.The poem "Railway" Nekrasov completed story about what the people received the award for his work.
Chapter 4. "The Bright Side" building
And the rails are laid, the dead are buried, the sick - are in dugouts.It is time to receive a reward.All foremen estimate for the work: "Does taking a bath, whether the person is lying."As a result, each clerk also must remain.Against this background, ironic words of meadowsweet, rolling a barrel of wine: "... arrears I give!" Gloomy thoughts conjures up the last chapter and its analysis."Railroad" Nekrasov - is the product not only of the labor heroism of the Russian people, but also of his servile fact, which does not break down.Tortured, beggar, a man accustomed to obedience and exulted "Kupchina shouting" Hurrah! "," On the road to rush ...
lyrical image in the poem "Railway»
Nekrasov, the theme of humiliation and enslavement of people for whom one of the main,He showed himself to be a citizen, a sense of personal responsibility for the fate of his native country.
lyrical hero openly expresses its position and attitude to what becomes the subject of the image.Recognizing the downtrodden and submissive, in fact, inherent in Russian peasant, he admired his strength of mind, strength of character, perseverance and incredible work ethic.Therefore, it does not leave hope that the time will come when human dignity prevail, and humiliated masses can stand on his defense.
contemporary attitude to the poem
New work Nekrasov has caused a wide public response.Not by chance, one of the censors called it "a terrible slander, which can not be read without a shudder."A magazine "Contemporary", first published text, received a warning about closing.
Plekhanov recalled acquaintance with a poem in the final year of military school.According to his testimony, and his first impulse was one of comrades: take a gun and go to "fight for the Russian people."