In this article, we will tell you about the pentameter, and other poetic short sizes.We first define the key concepts that will be used in the text.
Rhythm is a sound structure, which has a line of verse.This is a general ordering of poetic speech.Meter is a special case of rhythm.This regular alternation of unstressed and stressed syllables (strong and weak points) in the poem, the general scheme of its sound rhythm.
size is a certain way of organizing sound of poetry;this particular case we have described a meter.For example, the pentameter can theoretically include an options from odnostopnogo to dvenadtsatistopnogo and free.Size in syllabic versification, we can determine the number of syllables in tonic - considering the number of stresses, and syllabic-tonic and metric - number of feet and meter (iambic, trochaic, amphibrach et al.).
etymology of the word "pentameter"
answer to the question about the origin of the term of interest to us.The word "pentameter" - is the name of an ancient Gre
Etymology not exactly set.Iambic chants, as we know, is an integral part of special fertility festivals that were held in honor of Demeter.
The term is associated with the name of Yamba, maid Kehl, Eleusinian king.According to the myth, the girl obscene poems cheered Demeter, who inconsolably always sought her daughter Persephone.It is also possible that the name of Yamba - an echo of the ancient words having obscene meaning.
Iamb in antiquity
The poetry of antiquity most prevalent species was iambs trimeter and Sénart.Senart includes six iambic feet.The second kind, trimeter also incorporates six iambic feet, which are grouped in pairs (called dual stack dipodies).Two light syllable in antique versification could be replaced by a heavy one, and vice versa, it can be hard to replace two light.In actual practice, this assumption born of a huge variety of iambic poetry.Poems written data size, it was more like the rest in the everyday speech and used so largely in the epic genre and the drama and lyrics (in comedies, tragedies, fables).
In Greek metric pentameter - a two-syllable foot consisting of the first and second short syllable long.Do not assume anakrusy musical notation of the ancient Greeks, and thus rhythm was either upward (ie iambic) or downward (ie trochaic).
Iamb and ferrets
Iamb and ferrets in the ancient metrics collectively called a stop to the iambic rhythm on the grounds that the iambic met more often (and meets so far) than ferrets.
Khorey - it is also a Greek term derived from the word "dance tune", as well as indicating the "size", "choral foot."In syllabic-tonic verse most commonly used - and chetyrehstopnym shestistopny, and from the middle of the 19th century begins also apply trochaic pentameter.
and pentameter, and ferrets are binary meters.In chorea emphasis is on the first syllable in the iambic - on the second.
three-syllable poetic dimensions
binary meters we reviewed.We now say a few words about trisyllabic.Amphibrachiy consists of three feet, with the accent on the second syllable.The most common size of domestic syllabic-tonic versification - chetyrehstopnym (early 19th century), as well as trehstopny (since the mid-19th century).Dactyl - it is also a ternary meters, but with the accent on the first and anapaest - the last of the three.
Iamb in Russian literature
first mention of it in the literature of our country we find in published in 1619 book by Smotritsky titled "Grammar ...".However, the term poetics, which refers to a particular poetic meters, iambic began to appear in our country only after the theoretical work carried B. Trediakovskij.No poems in Russian sillabistov written data size.In Russia the first iambic verses were created Trediakovskij.
Iamb this was chetyrehstopnym.Then, the tradition was continued by using size.For example, Lomonosov wrote an ode, which used pentameter - poems dedicated to taking Khotin, the Turkish fortress.
Until today of all sizes in Russian iambic poetry is the favorite - it chetyrehstopnym.Approximately 80-85 percent of domestic poets poems written by him.This dimension verse acquired the widest popularity not so much because of the rhythmic forms of the container, which has been adapted to the poetic speech in Russian, but because of the established tradition of systematic mass use of its first great poets - V. Petrov, Mikhail Lomonosov, Derzhavin, andand later Pushkin and E. Baratynsky (see. photo).
was popular in the 18th and early 19th centuries shestistopny pentameter, characterized by smooth solemn rhythm.It is less received the lyrics in Russian, but in the theater plays - the size of the canonical verses (with the absence of rhyme).Exceptions are "Woe from Wit" Griboyedov, as well as the drama "Masquerade" from the pen of M. Lermontov, who wrote free verse.Size pentameter Futurists, found them quite rare, is characterized by harsh opposition of various turns gomofonicheskih and minted phonemes.Iambic pentameter used in poems, characterized by solid form, such as an octave, Sonnet and others. Quite rare trehstopny (mostly poets of the period of the first third of the 19th century).Most developed stihovedcheskoy literature theory is Iambic Tetrameter.It may be noted the study Shengeli G., B. Tomaszewski, A. White.
there dvustopnye and odnostopnye in iambic accentual-syllabic verse?
Dvustopnyh and odnostopnyh iambs does not exist because they are impossible rhythmological: an illusion or dvustopnosti odnostopnosti created because the truncated rhyme.For example, the poet Bryusov believed wrongly odnostopnymi iambs poem.
Iamb was actually amphibrach.It happened probably due to the fact that if these verses record on the grounds of rhymes separate lines, you get a visual similarity odnostopnogo pentameter.
Mnogostopnye iambic pentameter
Shestistopny - it is usually the second shestidolnik with monosyllabic anakruzy.
Mnogostopnye mainly been designed by Alexander Pushkin.
can be argued that before him there was no iambic pentameter.Poem (iambic) "Gavriliada" - the first work written by him.Alexander was very rigoristichen towards everything that concerned the introduction of a verse spoken language.Curiously, contemporaries spoke of Cantemir with praise because of the fact that he took a verse spoken language of the contemporary time.
Analogs iambic size in folk poetry
Although the size pentameter was introduced in the Soviet literature thanks to the reform and Trediakovsky University, folk poetry has developed independently of the influence of the West, or book original dimensions, among which there is a formal close to the iambic chetyrehstopnym.It is called the second chetyrehdolnik.So verse poem written, created Nekrasov, titled "Who Lives Well in Russia".