Today we tell about a world famous American writer, public figures and journalists.Your real name Mark Twain - Samuel Clemens.He was born in Missouri, the village of Florida, in 1835, on November 30.Samuel died in 1910, April 21.His creativity includes a variety of genres - satire, humor, journalism, fiction, philosophical and others, and everywhere it takes consistent position - a democrat and humanist.
Reviews of Mark Twain other writers
William Faulkner said that Samuel Clemens (Mark Twain's real name) was the first truly American writer.And Ernest Hemingway believed that modern American literature came entirely from a book called Twain "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn."In Russia, domestic writers especially heat of Samuel Clemens responded Alexander Kuprin and Maxim Gorky.
real name of the writer Mark Twain was not used in the publication of their works.He always signed pseudonym.The author claimed that the name by which he became a young man to call himself - Mark Twain -
But there is another version of the alleged literary origins of the nickname: in an American magazine in 1861, there was a humorous story "Northern Star" Artemus Ward tells about the three sailors, the name of one of them was Mark Twain (real name what Mark TwainWe have already found out).Very fond of Samuel humor department of a magazine called "Vanity Fair".Writer in the first performances (which are written below) read it works Artemus Ward.
Apart from the above alias, in 1896, Samuel once signed the name "Sieur Louis de Conte".Beneath it he published one of his novels.
childhood and youth of the writer
Samuel was born in a small town called Florida, located in the United States, Missouri.He later joked that increased the number of its inhabitants by one percent to its appearance in the world.The child was the third of four children of John and Jane Clemens.When he was still very young, my parents moved in search of a better life in the city of Hannibal in the same state.It was he and his residents were later immortalized in the works of the famous Samuel Clemens, especially published in 1876 novel "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer."
In 1847, Clemens's father died of pneumonia, while leaving the children a lot of debt.The eldest son named Orion began shortly publish their own newspaper and Sam began to make a contribution to the cause as a compositor and sometimes the author of various articles.It was as though some of the most controversial and lively texts of the papers were written by his younger brother just when Orion was out of town.Sam also sometimes traveled to New York and St. Louis.
period to start a career writer
Call Mississippi eventually drew Mark Twain, and he began to serve as a pilot boat.It was a profession which, as Clemens admitted he would like to devote all his life, but the beginning of a civil war, which ended in 1861, the private shipping company.The future writer was therefore forced to look for other employment.
Entry into Freemasonry
He joined the Masonic lodge "Polar Star" in May 1861 in St. Louis.Samuel sent during a routine trip from Palestine "hammer" in the address box, to which is attached a letter, couched in a humorous style.In it he informed the brothers that the handle of the hammer has cut them out of the trunk of cedar of Lebanon, which is planted near the walls of Jerusalem, Godfrey of Bouillon.
Mark Twain (real name and surname of the writer - Samuel Clemens) after a brief acquaintance with the militia (the experience, which he in 1885 vividly described), in July 1861 the war had gone west.At that time, his brother Orion was asked to become secretary to the governor, area manager of Nevada.Orion and Sam rode the prairies two weeks in the coach to the Virginia mining town, where silver was mined.
Twain formed as a writer is the experience of living in the western United States.He formed the basis for his second book.Hoping to get rich in Nevada, Clemens became a miner hired to extract silver.The writer had to live a long time in the camp with other working people - this way of life was described by him later in the literature.But it was not possible to become a successful prospector Samuel, he was forced to leave and settle in the production of a newspaper in Virginia, where he first began using his pseudonym glorified Mark Twain.Writer in 1864, moved to California, San Francisco, where he began to publish articles simultaneously to several newspapers.For Twain in 1865 came the first success in the field of literature, when he created the humorous story created was considered the best product in the United States in a humorous genre and reprinted across America.
Samuel Clemens led the Hawaii newspaper "Sacramento Union" in the spring of 1866.It was during his travels to write letters to him about past adventures.Their returning writer in San Francisco waiting for an unprecedented success.John Mc Comb, Colonel, publisher of the newspaper called "Alta California", Mark Twain offered to go on a tour of the state with the reading of entertaining lectures.They immediately gained wide popularity, and author, entertaining the audience with each participant collecting dollar, traveled the entire state.
first published book
Mark Twain (real name and surname of the writer we were presented above) as a writer has achieved initial success in another of his journey.He begged in 1867. Mack Komba sponsor his trip to the Middle East and Europe.As a reporter in June of this year it on board the "Cracker City" went to the Old World.In August, the writer also got to Sevastopol, Yalta and Odessa.Mark Twain (real name Mark Twain - Samuel Clemens) as part of the ship's delegation visited the residence of the Emperor of Russia in Livadia.
wrote them a letter during a trip to Asia and Europe went to the office and published in the newspaper, and then became the basis of a book called "The Innocents Abroad".She was born in 1869, was a resounding success.Many knew this writer until the end of his life was as the creator of the work.
In 1870 Samuel married Olivia Langdon and went to live in the city of Buffalo, which is located in the US state of New York.Later, he moved to Hartford (CT).This period was marked by lectures in England and the United States.After that, the writer began to create a sharp satire, criticizing politicians and the American public.This is especially characteristic of the collection published in 1883 entitled "Life on the Mississippi."
most notable contribution of the writer in the American and world literature is considered his novel "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn."Very popular were and remain as "The Prince and the Pauper," "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer," "A Connecticut Yankee", as well as the above-mentioned book "Life on the Mississippi", consisting of autobiographical stories.The writer began his career with the lowly comic verses, essays and completed human morality, full of fine irony and satirical pamphlets and philosophical reflections on the fate of an entire civilization.
numerous lectures and public appearances or were not written down, or turned out to be lost, the individual letters and works banned for publication by the creator in his lifetime and for decades after the death of the writer.
Mark Twain was an excellent orator.Having earned fame and recognition, he devoted much time to finding young talents, which helps to break with the help of its influence and publishing company acquired by the writer.
interest in science and friendship with Nikola Tesla
Samuel keen scientific problems.He was friends with Nikola Tesla spent a lot of time in his lab.The work entitled "A Connecticut Yankee," the writer has included time travel, which has led to the fact that modern technologies appeared during the time of King Arthur in England.Quoted in the novel technical details suggest that the author knew the scientific achievements of his era.
Sometimes individual works of Mark Twain, the American Censorship is prohibited to publish, for various reasons.This is mainly due to active social and civic position of the author.Some of them could hurt the religious feelings of his contemporaries, and so Twain did not publish these works.For example, until 1916 it remained unpublished "mysterious stranger".Some works of anti-religious orientation until the 1940s were not released.
In the 2000s, attempts were made again in the US to ban "Adventures of Huckleberry Finn" because of the fact that it contains naturalistic description and verbal expressions that are offensive to blacks.Despite the fact that the author was opposed to imperialism and racism and in their rejection of the latter went a lot further than most of his contemporaries, the word that in times of this author have been in general use today as sounding really racial slurs.In the United States in 2011, in February, the first edition of "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer" and "Huckleberry Finn", created by a writer under the pseudonym Mark Twain (real name - Samuel Langhorne Clemens) in which these expressions were replaced by other, politically correct.
That brief biography of the writer.
So, we found out the real name Mark Twain.Foreign Literature (Grade 4) first introduces us to this author.Works novelist like elementary school students.However, in the lower classes rarely mention that Mark Twain - a pseudonym.Now you'll know the real name of Mark Twain's tale of "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer" - work that typically include in the school curriculum.