"The hero of our time": the history of creation of the novel

This article is dedicated to the novel "Hero of Our Time".History of the creation of his very interesting and mysterious.We still do not know the details of the immediate work of Mikhail Lermontov on the text of the work.This is because the materials have come down to us, we are few: there is little stationery and drafts of manuscripts, as well as testimonies of contemporaries of the poet and the author himself.

Despite this, bit by bit collecting the necessary information and materials we can with some hypothetical recreate the main stages and some of the details of writing works of Mikhail Yurevich "hero of our time."The history of this novel, which is considered the pinnacle of the poet, is considered by us on the basis of this information.

Memories Shang Giray

AP Shang Giray their memories gives us some information about the time of the poet over this product.This relative and friend of the poet claimed that "Hero of Our Time," the story of creation of which we are concerned, was launched a

fter returning from Lermontov's first reference, in St. Petersburg in 1838.Most lermontovedov to adhere to this point of view.But there are data that suggest that already in 1837 had written a draft, "Taman".Today is known Authorized copy of this novel marked Viskovatov, who says that the manuscript was written Shang Giray, Lermontov's cousin, who is sometimes dictated his last works.Apparently, "Taman" was dictated to the draft, but not off the cuff (evidenced by a copy of purity).

This assumption is confirmed by a number of his relatives and contemporaries of the poet.For example, Grigorovich, who saw a rough autograph of the work, wrote in his memoirs that the story "Taman" sounds from the beginning to the end of a single harmonic chord.But if you take the first manuscript, it may be noted that it is full of inserts peremarana, it has a lot of marks on the wafers glued pieces of paper.

Memories Zhigmonta

Grigorovich, unfortunately, did not say anything about the whereabouts of the autograph, as well as about who owns it.But today it was announced another memory that resonates with the story of the contemporary.In 1947 he published the correspondence with PS Zhigmontom, a relative of the poet, his first biographer, PA Viskovatov.Zhigmont reported that like in 1839 in Stavropol poet sketched "Taman" and then gave a sketch of Petrov, who he could survive.

dating this was done, so half a century after the event, and the author of the memoirs he wrote, was not sure of the date.A. Popov noted that SO Zhigmont Lermontov met in 1837 in Stavropol, and in 1839 one of them in this city was not.Therefore, for 1837 should include a draft "Taman".

Location Lermontov during the work on the product

The basis of this novel, as you know, put experienced in September 1837 Mikhail Yuryevich incident.In November, he was already in Tbilisi.To this period belongs his rather curious sketch titled "I'm in Tbilisi."Very convincingly argues I. Andronicus so that it contains the germs "fatalist" and "Taman".You would think that because of the fact that the "syncretic idea" was the plot overloaded and complex writer decided to divide it into two pieces, sketched the first "Taman", during the journey in November-December 1837, and then "fatalist."This is the beginning for the product "Hero of Our Time" story of creation.The story and the novel composition has undergone significant changes in the future, but he later added two originally separate, works.In December, already returning to St. Petersburg, the poet stopped briefly in Sevastopol, where he met with SO Zhigmontom and Petrov, their relatives.At this time, rewriting the "Taman", Mikhail apparently left her draft Petrov.It was then he saw Grigorovich.

When it was written, "Taman" ("Hero of Our Time")?

History (briefly on all parts of the story) continues.The information collected thus allow us to say that the work on the draft "Taman" refers to the period from September to December 1837, because in September the poet was in Taman, and in late December, Mikhail left the Sevastopol.In this regard, it would seem, we can establish that it is in this, not in 1838, as suggested by a lot of researchers launched the product design "Hero of Our Time".The history of its creation, thus, opens the period from September to December 1837.

involvement there, "Taman" to the original intent of the novel?

Meanwhile, this conclusion is hasty, as there is evidence that "Taman" was originally conceived is not implicated in the novel, which arose later, as he was not privy to the image of the hero of this novel Pechorin.

First, the name of the protagonist works in "Taman" is never mentioned.Secondly, it is known from the "Princess Mary", that this character is exiled to the Caucasus for a kind of "story."But it does not look like a hero, "Taman" the newly arrived from St. Petersburg exile.

Third, in all the stories and novels certainly mentioned or shown Maxim Maximovich, "through the character", which is the antithesis of Pechorin.Only in "Taman" is missing.

There is also reason to believe that "fatalist" is written separately, after the "Taman" out of touch with the novel, apparently, at the beginning of 1838, on his return to St. Petersburg Mikhail Yurevich.

feature creative process Lermontov

peculiarity of the creative process, this author is a parallel work on several pieces.Along with the development of the initial version of the novel "A Hero of Our Time", the story of creation is described in this article, he worked as a poet of the final editors of "Demon".In September of 1838 was finished sixth in December - the seventh and the eighth - in January 1839.

first edition

in "Notes of the Fatherland" was published by "Bela" in March 1839.

In August of the same year completed the poem "Novice", and about this time began intensive preparations "Hero of Our Time" to print.Then there was a significantly changed the composition of the novel - it is on the novella "fatalist."Continuing thus the history of creation."Hero of Our Time" is experiencing at this time for the second edition.Data on the first quite a bit, but we can conclude that it was only from the works of "Maxim Maximovich," "Bella" and "Princess Mary".

Inclusion "fatalist" turned out to be an organic, primarily because it had an inner affinity between Pechorin and author.In addition, in the novel touched on the most important social problems of generation of contemporary Lermontov.

Inclusion of this work emphasized philosophicity novel and gave greater depth image of Pechorin.

continue to consider the product of "Hero of Our Time".The history of the novel, summaries, represented by the following further developments.

second edition of the work refers to 1839, the period from August to September.Then consisted of two short stories and two novels, "The hero of our time."The history of the composition of the novel in the final version will be described below.In this version of the product was divided into two parts: the notes officer, who is the narrator and protagonist of the note.The first group includes the story "Bella" and the story "Maxim Maximovich," and the second - the story "fatalist," and the story "Princess Mary".

final edition works

continue to talk about what was in the history of creation of the work."Hero of Our Time" at the end of 1839 has undergone significant changes in the preparation of the novel to a single publication.At this stage, the final already been introduced into it "Taman" in which the functions of the narrator, as in "Fatalist" hero were transferred from the author-narrator.In this edition it was already six "chapters".It also includes the "Preface" to the notes of the hero - "Journal of Pechorin" - which Belinsky called "chapters", given its importance.In this edition of the poet is divided into two parts of the novel that in the first two only implied.Also in this final stage of the determination of the final creation is the name of the product.

The release of the final version of the novel "A Hero of Our Time"

history of the novel concludes as follows.In February the permission of censorship to produce this work.Book in April 1840 went on sale, and a year later published a second edition, which includes a preface to the work as a whole, created by Lermontov, apparently, in February 1841.

So finally determined "canonical" structure of the novel "A Heroour time. "History of the creation of this work, which is one of the best in the 19th century, this is the end.