«Woe from Wit" - one of the best known and most cited works of Russian literature.On it are written dozens of articles and monographs, carried a huge number of productions.
However, the prediction came true IAGoncharov expressed a half-century ago: "Woe from Wit", a summary of which is well known, perhaps, any citizen of Russia, not only withstood the test ban, but the test of fame.In no small measure contributed to the aphoristic expression and accuracy.Popular expression of "Woe from Wit" have become an integral part of Russian culture.Actually, even before the insightful Pushkin Goncharova said that "half of the verse must enter a proverb," referring to the amazing aphoristic style of comedy.
Indeed, the text of the play literally "broken" in the quote.Many Russians now use aphorisms Griboyedov without even knowing about it.It seems, always existed in Russian sayings of "Woe from Wit" like "Happy hours are not watching" or "hero of my novel."The list goes on and on.In
And today, it seems strange that Griboyedov could doubt in the title, I picked up and crossed out the names of the characters, and the very idea of the work was markedly different from our usual choices.
At the same time, everything was just so.The theme of "evil mind" was one of the favorite in the drama abroad XVIII-XIX centuries.First of all, it was typical of the French satirical comedy.It was in French comedy Griboyedov studied and aphoristic brevity.But here's the thing: an object of ridicule in these comedies became not society, but just the denouncer, who took upon himself the dubious mission of the judge and the prophet.A tribute to this tradition and gave Griboyedov.In the comedy "Student" hero exposes society too, and his monologues are strikingly reminiscent of the angry speech Chatsky, but the accents are completely different.And not only that popular expressions of "Woe from Wit" more accurately and successfully.The thing is the position of the author.If the "student" the author's sympathies clearly not on the side of the hero, the comedy "Woe from Wit" Griboyedov hero refers to much more difficult.This fact is often overlooked.Soviet literary criticism often allow reverse bias, underestimating the name of the hero Chatsky."Woe from Wit" was interpreted so that Chatsky was the mouthpiece of the ideas of the author.But this is not the case.Wise life experience of the author and the diplomatic comedy "Woe from Wit", whose credo could be formulated as a "smart service to the Fatherland", well aware not only evokes sympathy Chatsky sincere impulse, but the potential dangers associated with the pathos of a total negation of everything and everyone.The author, of course, impressed by the position "would be happy to serve, fawn sickening", which became a winged (he had heard, by the way, from the composer Alexander Alyabiev), but not all in close Chatsky Griboyedov.
Chatsky and his aphorisms
First of all, the hero lacks rationality, in a sense - adulthood.Not by chance in draft form Chatsky was listed as "Chad".And it is, of course, not only in allusion to the PYChaadaeva.Griboyedov attracted and associations with the very root of the "children" - here and "Son," that is, the child, and the one who in the "daze" - that is, blinded, is unable to think clearly.Later, ASGriboyedov softened "transparency" of the names of the hero, but rightly believed that hath ears, let him hear.
aphoristic character names
Such hints, of course, not accidental, if we bear in mind that comedy was written "at the crossroads" of several areas, such as Classicism and Enlightenment realism.In the tradition of these areas, especially classicism, names of the characters were "prompting" nature, they contained characteristic.
«Woe from Wit" follows this tradition.Brief description of the actors indicates that the names of almost all the characters in one way or another are related to the semantics of the conversation: FAMUSOV (one of whom they say), Skalozub (grins, but says nothing) Molchalin (one who is silent), Repetilov(one who is only able to repeat), etc.The result is a picture of the deaf community, which can not hear and who have nothing to say, a society in which "sin does not matter, the rumor is not good."As a result, popular expressions of "Woe from Wit" are complemented by another - "There is something desperate to come!"
In this context it is no coincidence the name of the main character comedy - Chatsky."Woe from Wit" begins with the fact that the hero rushes to angry denunciations of almost everyone, but the outcome of the fight is a foregone conclusion.The hero is too naive and short-tempered to be any danger to the world Famusovs.
and celebrities who have become catchwords Chatsky, addressed both to itself and to Sophia ("Blessed are those who believe, - heat it in the world") bitter echoes in the plot.Chatsky disappointed, humiliated, betrayed.He owes nothing to prove and no one was convinced.The only thing that bothers Famusov - is, "Oh!Oh my God!What will say Princess Mary Aleksevna "!
Interestingly, in the original version of the comedy had a slightly different name, the more focused the reader to the author's setting: "Woe to the mind."However, it is changing the name of Griboyedov.It would seem that the difference is small, but in fact it is immense."Woe mind" - it is a tragedy intelligent man in a society where others are not so smart.And Griboyedov play this motive, of course, present.
But "Woe from Wit" - the name of a broader sense, because, perhaps, it was a popular expression.The Company arranged so unfair and absurd that the emergence of "mind" is disastrous not only for the "medium of the mind", but also for everyone else.The emergence Chatsky suffered everything FAMUSOV (it bothers scandal), Sophia (she lost a loved one and faith in love), Molchalin (he loses perspective and career), he Chatsky."Woe from Wit" is built on a paradox: the mind, which must bear the creation, carries only destruction.Who is to blame: whether only society or the "evil mind" Chatsky - the reader and the viewer has to decide for itself.And because actual sounds forever, maybe the most famous rhetorical question Chatsky: "Who are the judges?»