One of the most frequently used terms in literary criticism is the author's position.It can be the basis for the theme works, articles, essays or theses.Author's position in the text need to see and understand how it is expressed.
should be noted that the author's position throughout the development of literature has undergone a number of qualitative changes.At the beginning of origin of the mass of literature (ie when literature as an art separated from folklore, ceased to be of a political or religious nature) assessment of the author expressed in the product directly.The author could not speak openly about what a hero he feels positive or negative, expressed their attitude to what is happening in the derogations, in the conclusions.Over time, this way the presence of the author in the text became unacceptable, the creator of the text became samootstranyatsya, allowing the reader to decide on whose side he was on.This process is particularly intensified in the 20th century, thi
Ways of expressing the author's position in the drama, lyric and epic
Depending on the type of product literature and genre mode of expression evaluation may be different.The most difficult task facing the writer working with plays or poems with, because they are more limited in scope, the choice of means.
author, creating a dramatic work, to be a true master of the word.Indeed, in his arsenal only replica of heroes.Through it, he should show the nature of his character.He present in the text only at remarks.That remark is one of the ways of expressing the author's position in the text.Consider the drama Gorky "The Lower Depths."Author's position in relation to the rooming house residents and the situation is clear: extensive remarks at the beginning of each act show us the pictures of the horrific situation.This ragged walls, hanging ceilings, stripped the sheets, a lot of people who are indifferent to each other.Another important tool is the author's assessment speak names.This technique is especially used extensively in the 18th and 19th centuries.For example, in the play Griboyedov "Woe from Wit" heroes - FAMUSOV, Molchalin Skalozub.FAMUSOV - surname descended from the English "feymos" meaning "famous."Molchalin really tries to keep quiet, not to say too much and do not lose hope for a next rank.Skalozub - always friendly and courteous deliberately.The author's position as expressed in the drama by introducing into the fabric of the work of the hero-arguer.This character embodies the basic ideas of the author.For example, in the drama AN Ostrovsky's "Thunderstorm" such acts Kuligin hero.That it expresses attitude towards the provincial town of Kalinov "brutal manners, sir, in your town."
In the poem, the author's position can be presented on two levels: the semantic and language, Ext.Any lyrical work full of feeling, in addition, the majority of the poems embody copyright emotions.It is no accident, therefore, is often associated with their lyrical.At the level of the language the author's position may be represented by the epithets, the personification, metaphors, antitheses, neologisms copyright.Consider the poem blocks "Factory".His attitude to what is happening symbolist poet expresses through the gloomy colors, he deliberately wrote unconventional word "Zsolt".It enhances the voltage, gives poetry a special rigidity.
In the epic author's position is more important than the lyrics.Indeed, in the center of the picture epic is a problem: the philosophical, moral, social or political.The discreet and unobtrusive author opinion, the better looking text.
expression of the author's position is easiest to consider the example of the Russian novel.One of the most popular methods resorted to in his work Tolstoy, are lyrical digressions.In such deviations are depicted landscapes, discussions about important life issues.The digression opinion of the writer expressed almost directly, but can not always understand without much reflection.One example is the ending of the novel Turgenev's "Fathers and Sons."Turgenev paints a beautiful countryside which surrounds the grave of Bazarov.Thus, the author shows that the ideas were wrong Bazarov, the protagonist is too wrong when he called this beautiful God's creation workshop in which people - worker.
It so happens that the author's position is present only at the level of symbolism.The writers have resorted to the symbolism of names, colors, numbers.From this point of view is very interesting it is the novel of Fyodor Dostoyevsky's "Crime and Punishment".The author of the text is eliminated, which is why Bakhtin called its polyphonic.After all, in the text there is plenty of voices, opinions and assessments, among which one can hardly distinguish the author.However, in the novel it says that the most important thing was to Dostoevsky hold gospel the idea that every human life is valuable in itself, that we can not overstep the main commandment of God for the sake of any idea, nor for money, nor for good purposes.Actively Dostoevsky draws characters of different levels.The very name of the hero is seen by researchers from different positions, one of which is reminiscent of the split that occurred in the history of the Russian Church.Repeated numbers 7 and 3 again brings us back to the religious books.7 days it took God to create this world, 3 - the number of sacred for Christians, symbolizing God the Father, God the Son and the Holy Spirit.
Thus, the author's position is important for understanding the ideological plan works.They may be expressed differently.when reading the works should pay attention primarily on the names of the characters, the details of which are mentioned in the text, the clothes the characters, their portrait characteristics.Also it is necessary to pay special attention to landscape sketches and digression.