Knight's literature - a major line of work, which was developed in the Middle Ages.Hero it was performed feats feudal warrior.The most famous product of this area: created in France Gotfridatom Strasbourg "Song of Roland" in Germany - "Tristan and Isolde" (verse novel) and "Song of the Nibelungs" in Spanish - "Rodrigo" and "The Song of the Cid" and others.
The school is mandatory covered the theme of "Knight Literature" (Grade 6).Students pass the story of its origin, the main genres, get acquainted with the principal works.However, the theme of "Knight Medieval Literature" (Grade 6) reveals compressed, selectively, missed some important points.In this article, we would like to expand it in more detail, so that the reader had a better idea about it.
Knight's literature includes not only novels, but also the poetry that sang the praises of a certain loyalty to the lady of the heart.For her knights risking their lives subjected themselves to various tests.Glorifies the love song o
Knight's literature in Italy is represented mainly lyrical poetry.He founded a new style that glorified the love of a lady, Guido Gvinitselli, Bolognese poet.The largest of its representatives - Guido Cavalcanti and Brunetto Latini, the Florentines.
image of knights and beautiful ladies
word "knight" means in German "rider".Being a warrior, he was at the same time to have lovely manners, worship the lady of the heart, to be cultured.It is a cult, and last appeared courtly poetry.Representatives sang her nobility and beauty, and great ladies were treated favorably to this kind of art, which they praised.Sublime was courtly literature.Pictures presented in this article, confirm it.
Courtly love, of course, was to some extent arbitrary, since fully subordinate court etiquette.Sings the praises of the lady, as a rule, was the wife of the suzerain.And the knights in love with her, were just reverent court.So Frivolous songs that flatter the female ego, surrounded both the feudal yard brilliance exclusivity.
Courtly love was a secret, so do not dare to call on the name of his lady.It looked like the feeling of reverent adoration.
created at the time a lot of poetic texts, and the authorship of most of them is lost.But among the many colorless and therefore there is a catchy, bright figures.The most famous troubadours were Giraut de Borneyl, Bernart de Ventadorn, Markabryun, Dzhaufre Rudel, Peyrol.
Types courtly poetry
There are many types of courtly poetry in Provence, but the most common were: Alba, Canson, pastorela, ballad mourning tensona, sirventes.
Canson (translation - "Song") is presented in narrative form a love theme.
Alba (meaning "morning star") was dedicated to the split, earthly love.It said that the lovers break up after a secret meeting at the dawn, her approach informs their servant or standing guard each.
Pastorela - a song that tells the story of a knight and a shepherdess meeting.
poet longs to mourning, mourning their share, or mourning the death of a person close to him.
Tensona - a kind of literary dispute, which is attended by two or poet, or Beautiful Lady and poet, the poet and Love.
Sirventes - a song where the affected social issues, the most important of which is: Who is worthy to love more - disgraceful suave Baron or a commoner?
That brief knightly courtly literature.
Troubadours, which we have already mentioned, are the first courtly poets of Europe.After they were German "singers love" - minnesingers.But the sensual element in their poetry has played a smaller role than in the Romance prevailed more moralistic tone.
genre of romance
In the 12th century was marked by the emergence of courtly literature of romance - a new genre.Create it involves other than the creative perception of the world and inspiration, and extensive knowledge.Knight and urban literature are closely linked.The authors of most of its people were scientists trying to reconcile his creative ideals of equality before God, with the manners and customs of the era that existed in reality.As a protest against the latter advocated the ideals of courtesy.This morality, which reflects the courtly literature of the Middle Ages, was a utopian, but that it is a novel.
marks the heyday of his Breton cycle.The most famous of the novels in this series include: "Brutus," "Erec and Enid," "Klizhes", "Tristan and Isolde", "Iveyn" "Beautiful Stranger", "Parsifal", "The Story of the Grail," "Wickedchurchyard "," Perlesvaus "," Death of Arthur "and others.
France courtly literature of the Middle Ages was widely represented.Moreover, it is home to the first romances.They were a kind of fusion of the Late retelling of Ovid, Virgil, Homer's epic Celtic legends and stories about the unknown lands of the Crusaders and kurtuaznyh songs.
Chretien de Troyes was one of the founders of the genre.His most famous creation is the "Iveyn, or Knight of the lion."The world that created de Troyes, is the epitome of chivalry, because the characters that live in it, tend to deeds, to adventure.In this novel, Chretien has shown that feat in itself is meaningless, that any adventure should be targeted, full of meaning: it could be some kind of protection slandered the ladies, getting a girl from the fire, rescue the relatives of his friend.Self-denial and generosity Iveyn emphasized his friendship with the king of beasts - the lion.
In "The Story of the Grail" by this author used more sophisticated techniques that reveal a person's character.The feat of "difficulties" hero doomed to austerity.However, this is not a Christian penance for the salvation of his soul, for internal motives deeply selfish, but great determination and discipline.Percival, the hero of the work, leaving not because of religious mystical rush his girlfriend, as a result of a whole range of feelings, which mingled sadness of abandoned mothers with a desire to help the King fisher, uncle of the hero.
romance in Germany
The other famous medieval romance "Tristan and Isolde", a completely different tone.The basis of it was based on Irish legends describing the unhappy love beautiful young hearts.Not in knightly adventure novel, comes to the fore the conflict between customary norms and motives lovers.Passion Queen Isolde and Tristan boys pushing them out to trample marital debt and vassal.The tragic tone becomes book: the characters become a victim of fate, destiny.
In Germany, the romance has been represented mainly in the arrangement of works by French: Heinrich von Feldeke ("Aeneid"), Godfrey of Strasbourg, Hartmann von Aue ("Iveyn" and "Erek"), Wolfram von Eschenbach ("the partial").They differed from the last deepening religious and moral issues.
romance in Spain
romance in Spain until the 16th century did not develop.Known in the 14th century, only one called "Knight Siphar".In the next, the 15th century, there are "Kurian and Guelph" and "Tyrant White" written Zhoanotom Marturelem.In the 16th century Montalvo created "Amadis Gal" also appeared an anonymous novel, "Olivia de Palmerin" and others, more than 50.
romance in Italy
Knight literature of the Middle Ages this country was characterized mainly borrowed plots.Italy is an original contribution to the poem "The entry into Spain," written by an anonymous author in the 14th century, as well as "Capture of Pamplona," it continued, created by Nicolo from Verona.Italian epics developed in the works by Andrea da Barberino.