Gorky was always attracted to the unity and struggle of opposites (no wonder he was a Marxist) society and personality, wealth and poverty, between good and evil, truth and falsehood.In the drama "The Lower Depths" author managed most clearly show the unbearable heaviness of the truth and saving lie for the weak, broken man.Many controversial Russian works were published not at home and abroad.I was no exception and the drama "The Lower Depths."Gorky wrote it at the end of 1901 - beginning of 1902.Original title: "At the bottom of life," "Without Sun", "Doss house", "bottom".
play was allowed only in the Moscow Art Theater, where he had made the first statement of 18 December 1902 the directors of the Stanislavsky and Nemirovich-Danchenko.In 1904 she received the award Griboyedov.
first people on the scene "bottom" - thieves, prostitutes, gamblers and drunkards, which the author has collected in a nightmarish flophouse.
Sad situation for paints his characters Maxim Gorky - at the bott
live in shelters Ashes young thief, a prostitute Nastya, ruined nobleman (Baron), living at the expense of Nastya, mechanic ticks and his dying wife, actor-alcoholic, card tricksters Satin, kartuznik Bubnov and others, under theIt is already named.It contains the hangout greedy and disgusting in his ostentatious piety Kostylev sincerely convinced that "kindness of heart can not be equated with money."So he pulls from his impoverished guests three skins that was what the little lamp oil to buy.We can say that in this drama Gorky created a style "noir" - however, many Russian drama sin exaggerated hopelessness.
first characters of the play endlessly squabble on everyday topics - the Baron does not want to sweep the house, the mite snarls in response to accusations of indifference to the sick wife, the vendor kneadingtroughs discusses the feasibility of marriage.When there is a wandering old flophouse Luke talk her regulars suddenly acquire a philosophical turn.This is where it really and fight for the truth and falsehood in the drama "The Lower Depths."
traces of Christianity in the product
newcomer sets itself apart from the permanent inhabitants "kostylevskih chorus" in that it preserved the elementary humanity.Some critics argue that Luke - a negative character, and even its name is derived from "the evil one."But apparently this is not the case: at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.Gorky was a supporter of the theory of god-building, which tried to reconcile Marxism and Christianity, based on some similarities philosophies.
truth and lies in the drama "The Lower Depths" is the most intricately intertwined in the form of Luke, which is more evangelical character.His ideas largely Christian: he is really trying to comfort the grieving (and, possibly, in this bitter and sees the main purpose of religion).The old man calms dying Anna listens sympathetically fictitious love story Nasty prostitute, tells the alcoholic actor on the hospital, which is required to be cured of, persuades the thief Vaska go to Siberia and start a new honest life.
Luca believes that the loss of hope condemned to death, and tells a parable about a man, a lifetime dream to go to "the land of righteousness."Having learned that it does not exist, it is hung (just ends up with a loss of faith in the cure an alcoholic actor, what, in fact, a play of Gorky and ends).
So Still: true or false?The respect or pity?
unclear whether the author deliberately identifies hope with the illusion, thus turning it into a lie, but in this occasion into a kind of controversy with Luke enters Satin.He's a kid I read a lot, and then killed a man protecting his sister in prison addicted to the cards and began to make a living scam.Satin ironic, intelligent, educated.His outlook somewhat coincides with the views of Luke: Both believe that the center of the universe - a man and his free choice.But if Luke calls "time to feel sorry for the person," that pity for Satin unacceptable: "We need to respect the human being ... not to humiliate him ... pity."
When roommates old man accused of falsity, gambler intellectuals passionately defends him: "There are many people who lie out of pity for the neighbor ... There is a comforting lie, lie reconciling."He himself, however, says its unambiguous evil, but recognizes the inevitability of some: "Who is weak soul ... and other people who live juices ... the lie is necessary."
literary critic and the author's intent
truth and lies in the drama "The Lower Depths" in opposition not only of opinion heroes.The main contradiction is, as usual, between word and deed, the idea and the reality.Satin may shout that people "sounds good" - he, however, nothing more than a card sharpie, despising the work: "Work?For what?To be satiated? ".No, of course, need to be "higher satiety."Work, therefore, is reprehensible, and cheat at cards - no.
very good that we are now free from the socialist ideology, which has become a hostage of Maxim Gorky."At the bottom" - a drama interesting and deep, it is unlikely to be taken only as a criticism of capitalist society.It is possible that the author tried to distinguish not only between true and false, but also a man who sounds good, and those in which its former greatness from nothing left.
look into the abyss
One of the characters in the play very clearly outlines the reasons for their stay "at the bottom": "As I begin to fill - the whole propyl, the skin remains one ... And yet - I'm lazy.Passion like I do not like to work. "
In the last act Nastya finally formulated this line: "... to sweep you as rubbish ... somewhere in the pit."This sounds like a rather unpleasant idea that the "superfluous men" should be destroyed, and not comforted humane lies, though every human life - not in vain.In this case, the death of the actor, finally realized the futility of his existence, is very symbolic.