Bullets are different.They are dependent on the type of weapons for which they are made.There are shells for shotguns, sliced, pneumatic.Accordingly, they look different.The size will be determined by the type and size of the weapons.
There are large live ammunition, large or very small bullets for pistols and revolvers.
However, the speed of the bullet will be determined not only by its size.It is influenced by many other factors.
Factors affecting the speed of a bullet
A number of reasons may slow initial velocity of the projectile when fired from a gun.Consider the major ones.
- ambient temperature.The lower the temperature, the more energy is spent on heating of the powder and the flight of the projectile, that is the initial velocity of flight is reduced.
- Humidity gunpowder.The more dry powder is, the higher the value of the initial velocity, as the pressure on the barrel of the weapon.
- shape and size of grains of gunpowder.The smaller the particles are dispersed powder charge, the fasterthey will burn.Therefore, to increase the initial velocity of a bullet shot.
- charge density of powder.In order to maximize the safe and correct powder charge product requires special precise engineering calculations.Without them, the possibility of overdose in the powder, leading to an internal detonation of weapons.Or, on the contrary, Undercharge that would lead to overheating of the barrel weapons.It does not attempt to carry out reloading powder component in arms!
- length of the barrel weapons.The shorter the barrel, the less time the action is carried out of powder gases, which reduces the speed of a bullet.
- Product weight.The lighter bullet by weight, the higher is its initial velocity.
Each of these factors can vary slightly depending on the particular type of weapon.Overall, however, these conditions affect the primary and the general speed of a bullet when fired.
What is a chronograph?
Chronograph - is a special device that allows you to track some of the indicators of internal and external devices and projectile based on the received data to conclude its possible speed.
The device is designed so that with its help you can easily check the technical specifications of weapons in the store.In addition, it defines the beginning and the total speed of a bullet.
With the chronograph you can see and evaluate the following indicators weapons:
- cylindrical pressure (the level);
- fatigue spring or osvintsovku trunk;
- instrument will show the weight of the cartridge;
- will assess the quality;
- will wear the cuff of the piston;
electronic device by calculation and synthesis will give real results for all indicators.However, it has its drawbacks.
device has a certain weight and size, making it is not always comfortable to use under certain conditions (such as field).Another disadvantage of this device include the error in measurement (e).It does not get too large, but still the place to be.
counter device is activated and stops depending on the light area (room), because of which also formed a kind of error in the readings.
the exact trajectory of the real bullets such a device will not significantly, for this you should use another method of measurement.
Backache different distances
This is a more accurate and realistic way by which you can determine the speed of a bullet.This will require not only care, but also a computer with a ballistic calculator, which will provide full information and the most accurate calculations.
job is as follows:
- load in the ballistic calculator necessary data that we take from the manufacturer of weapons and own the resulting figures (weapons are targeting the 100 m to zero);
- introduce mass chuck distance of fire;
- measure and load height of the sight over the barrel of a weapon;
- manufacturer take data on the vertical and horizontal clique in optics;
- are making readings of temperature and air pressure at the time of the study (more accurately, the more real and better will be the result);
- indicator of altitude;
- speed of a bullet from producer.
The calculator will lumbago distances graphs.It states 200, 300, 500 and 700 meters.Over long distances once is not recommended.In columns where requested 1MOA, write the following values according to the order of distances: 5.8;8.7;14.5;20.3 centimeters.
The rest of the work is only in the mouse-clicking on the calculator.Follow Navigator ballistic device and the result will be accurate and real indicator of what is the escape velocity bullets.
Some velocities of different caliber cartridge for machine
As mentioned above, to give an accurate assessment of such indicators as the rate is difficult.In many respects it is determined the surrounding circumstances.However, approximate values for different-sized bullets can bring the machine.
Research and calculations showed that the speed of flight of the cartridge from the machine will depend on the model and caliber, so there may be variations in the given data.But these small errors, and correct them for their weapons one can own.
AK-74 caliber 5.45H39
If shooting is done normal (conventional) cartridge, the average data rate of a bullet will show results in about 870 m / s.If the distance to make about 500 meters, the speed will drop to 428 m / s.
This type of weapon has an elongated trunk, so the bullet speed is high enough.
AKS-74U caliber 5.45H39 and AK-101
If we talk about the speed of a bullet fired from the AKS-74U caliber 5.45H39, it is approximately 740 m / s.Less than the previous one, because the barrel shorter.
AK-101 caliber 5.56h45, by contrast, show a very good result for this indicator.Approximately 930 m / s, thanks to the structure of the long-barreled weapons.The American counterpart of this weapon has a greater length of the barrel, for both types of machines suitable for the same cartridges with the value of the initial velocity of the shot.
these weapons have a greater weight than all the followers of the AK, so have a strong penetrating power.However, the rate of yield to my colleagues, because it is only 740 m / s.Nevertheless, it is quite enough to the machine was considered a formidable and serious assault weapons.
Muzzle energy bullets
In addition to speed, very important characteristic is also the energy of the bullet.To calculate the muzzle energy is worth remembering regular school physics course.The simplest formula would be: (mass x velocity) 2/2 (weight in kilograms, the speed in meters per second).
Why is it important energy value of the cartridge?Because the energy - is the power of the bullet, its main combat characteristics.The more weight and higher speed, so, consequently, higher and energy.It means that the weapons more powerful and long-range.
In other words, this is the usual formula for calculating the kinetic energy of the body.Maximum muzzle energy possess bullet rifles.They balanced the mass and initial velocity of the bullet so that the work has a powerful and effective.
For example, at a distance of about 100 meters depth entry rifle bullets in a sufficiently dense material is from 0.6 to 350 cm. This material, such as steel plate, wood, iron plate, a layer of soft clay, gravel or crushed stone, brickmasonry, earth or hard-packed snow.These data are based on a study of muzzle energy of light weight bullets.
Obviously, the velocity and muzzle energy of any projectile is very large, and determines the power and long-range weapons.
Not so long ago, it was conducted among owners pneumatics survey on the topic: "What is the speed of a bullet with your airgun?"Interestingly, the percentage variation in speed is very varied.
For instance, most of them took part in the survey (20%) cited a figure of 220-305 m / s.Since this is, basically, the normal average rate for pneumatics, the figure does not cause distrust.
However, nearly 9% of the respondents claim that their weapons have bullet velocity of 380 m / s and more.Here, the figure casts doubt on his credibility.For a too powerful military weapons work.Such speed bullets for pneumatic rare, not every model can boast of such a.
to 19% of the participants admitted that their weapons hit a bullet with a speed of 100-130 m / s and 130-180 m / s.At 11%, this figure tends to 350 m / s, which is quite serious.Finally, 6% of the estimated speed of the bullet in his departure pneumatics 75-100 m / s.
most common and easier to measure the rate of speed in the pneumatic weapon with the help of timepieces.Most of these devices and is designed just for pneumatics.Although the error in the measurements will not go anywhere, but the result will still be quite significant.
Whichever way you measured the rate of departure of any bullets from his weapon, the error is still not going anywhere, because the external environment is always different in its characteristics.