Literary criticism is an area of creativity, on the verge of art (ie, fiction), and the science of it (literary).Who are the experts in it?Critics - these are people who are engaged in the evaluation and interpretation of works from the perspective of the present (including the point of view of the pressing problems of the spiritual and social life), as well as their personal views, argue and identify creative principles of various literary movements, have on the literary process active influence, as well asdirectly affect the formation of a certain social consciousness.They are based on the history and theory of literature, aesthetics and philosophy.
Literary criticism is often political and topical, journalistic character, interwoven with journalism.There is a close relationship with its related sciences: political science, history, textual criticism, linguistics, bibliography.
critic Belinsky wrote that every era literature of our country was on the mind itself, which is
hard not to agree with this statement.Russian criticism - as a unique and striking phenomenon as a classic of Russian literature.It should be noted.Different authors (critic Belinsky, for example) indicated repeatedly that she, being by nature a synthetic, has played in the social life of our country a huge role.Let us recall the most famous writers who have devoted themselves to the study of the classics.Russian critics - a DIPisarev, NADob, AVDruzhinin, AAGrigoriev, VGBelinsky and many other articles which encompasses not only a detailed analysis of the works, but also their artistic features, ideas, images.They wanted to see the art of painting the most important social and moral problems of the time, and not just their capture, but also sometimes offer their solutions.
Articles written by Russian critics, and now continues to have a major impact on the moral and spiritual life of society.It is not by chance have long been included in the compulsory program of school education in our country.However, the lessons of literature for several decades, mostly students acquainted with articles critical of the radical orientation.Critics of this trend - DIPisarev, NADob, NGChernyshevsky, VGBelinsky and others.At the same time the works of these authors are often perceived as a source of quotations, which are generously "decorated" the students their works.
This approach to the study of classical art form in the perception of stereotypes, much to impoverish and simplify the overall picture of the development of Russian literature, which differ primarily violent aesthetic and ideological disputes.
Only recently, thanks to the emergence of a number of in-depth research, the vision of Russian literary criticism and became a multi-faceted and more voluminous.Articles have been published NNStrakhov, AAGrigoriev, NINadezhdin, IVKireyevski, PAVyazemsky, KNBatiushkov, NMKaramzin (see. Nikolai Mikhailovich portrait, painted by Tropinin, below), and other prominent writers of our country.
Features literary criticism
Literature - is the art of the word, which is embodied in a work of art, and in a speech on literary criticism.Therefore, Russian critic, like any other, always a little and writer, and artist.The article, written with talent, contains necessarily powerful fusion of different moral and philosophical reflections of the author with deep and subtle observations of an artistic text.Very little useful study provides a critical article, if taken as a kind of dogma of its main provisions.It is important for the reader intellectually and emotionally survive all told this author, to determine the degree of evidence of arguments put forward by them, to think about the logic of thought.Criticism of the works - not the unique thing.
own vision of criticism
critics - the people who open their own vision of the writer, offered his unique interpretation of the work.Article often causes re-interpret the artistic image, or it can be a critic of the book.Some estimates and judgments may skillfully written work to serve the real discovery for the reader, but something seems to us debatable or wrong.Particularly interesting comparison on the work of different writers, or one piece of different points of view.Literary Criticism always provides us with a wealth of material for reflection.
richness of Russian literary criticism
We can, for example, look at the work of Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin eyes VVRozanov, AAGrigorieva, VGBelinsky and IVKireyevski get acquainted with the way perceived differently contemporaries of Gogol his poem "Dead Souls" (critics VG Belinsky, SP Shevyrev, KS Aksakov), in the second half of the 19th century estimated heroes "WoeWit "Griboyedov.It is interesting to compare the perception of the novel "Oblomov" Goncharova with how he interpreted DSMerezhkovskys and DIPisarev.Portrait latter is presented below.
articles devoted to the works of L.Tolstoy
For example, a very interesting literary criticism devoted to the work of LNTolstoy.Ability to show the "purity of the moral sense," "dialectic of the soul" hero works as a characteristic of Tolstoy's talent, one of the first opened and marked NGChernyshevsky in his articles.Speaking about the work of NNStrahov devoted to "War and Peace", we can say with full right: there are few works in the domestic literary criticism, which can be put next to him on the depth of penetration into the author's intent, subtlety and precision of observations.
Russian criticism in the 20th century
noteworthy that the result is often fierce disputes and challenging quests Russian criticism has been its commitment to the early 20th century to "return" to the Pushkin Russian culture, for its simplicity and harmony.VVRozanov, proclaiming the necessity of this, he wrote that the mind of Alexander protects a person from all the stupid, his generosity - from all vulgar.
In the mid-1920s there was a new cultural surge.The young state after the civil war gets, finally able to seriously address the culture.In the first half of the 20th century literary criticism is dominated by the formal school.Its main representatives - Shklovsky, Tynyanov and Eichenbaum.Formalists, rejecting the traditional functions performed by the criticism - social, political, moral, didactic - insisted on the idea of the independence of literature on the development of society.In doing so, they went against the dominant while the ideology of Marxism.Therefore, formal criticism gradually came to an end.In later years he was ruling socialist realism.Criticism becomes in the hands of the state punitive tool.It is monitored and guided by the party itself.All magazines and newspapers appeared departments and columns of criticism.
Today, of course, the situation has radically changed.